pilot error. The scientific approach to aviation.
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pilot error. The scientific approach to aviation.

pilot error. The scientific approach to aviation.


Consider the causes of errors can not be a pilot, even in a very large book. Next will be considered the most difficult to investigate mistakes made in konsustalnom state, ie, when and flight conditions and the condition of the pilot had been perfectly normal. On the complexity of the investigation says such errors, in particular, the following fact.
When we asked the instructor pilots to explain why sometimes pilots forget to release the landing gear on landing, they unanimously answered that this, in principle, could not be, that this was some kind of mysticism and these cases defy explanation. The pilots themselves, who had forgotten to release the landing gear, also said that they wouldn’t think about how this could have happened.
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Pilot error

Pilot error


There are many different mistakes of the konsuetalnom condition. All of them are connected with a completely objective, ie are independent of consciousness and impaired functioning will pilot flight image. Consider some of them.


Functional disorders - It improperly his place. For example, the replacement of one other way: when an engine failure the pilot correctly performs all the required procedures to shut down the engine, but with controls another - working - engine.


Violations of state - The image, or any element of it is too weak or too strong (full of energy) in comparison to other images or the same elements in order to perform its proper role. For example, the feeling heeled horizon in the perception of the rough edges of the clouds is sometimes so strong that creates a feeling heeled pilot aircraft, though it really is in level flight, and thereby forcing the pilot to bank the plane.


Elementary violation - Item-level violations. As such, it is possible, for example, result in the formation of such as psevdodeystvie (described cm. Below).


Structural disorders - Lack or excess cells and connections between them. For example, it so happens that during the flight simulator height indicator has long standing at zero, and the pilot continued to fly a plane. This means that the values ​​in an image height of flight no.


Integrity Violations - the absence of clear (continuous) boundaries of the image. For example, when flying clouds in a homogeneous environment, when the eye can not be "hooked," sometimes the pilot gets the impression of a plane crash. And the fall is not according to the laws of aerodynamics (dive or planning with loss of height), but as in the elevator - vertically down, but in an airplane in a horizontal position. This mirage pilot can often not distinguish from reality, i.e. An image is formed that combines the elements and the image of flight (the location of the aircraft in the air, its specific position in space), and the image of the fall.

Procedural violations - violations of updating the image. An example of this - a virtual state.


Environmental violations - Breach of the relationship with the environment. For example, the "random" off serviceable engine startup failed, due to a certain perfect biomechanics of motion and control panel design

Every act of activity in the course of its implementation goes through three phases:

  • It has not configured
  • performed
  • already made


Each of these phases corresponds to a certain state of mind:

  • Unsatisfied - waiting (intent to)
  • Running - urgency
  • PERFORMANCE - achieved.


 In the course of professional activity, the current act may be unexpectedly interrupted by the need to perform some other emergency act. This interruption leads to the appearance of structurally inferior acts, both interrupted and interrupted. In principle, the incompleteness of the act causes the person to return to the interrupted action. However, it so happens that the combination of one defective act with another gives rise to such a complex that is structurally integral. Such complexes are called pseudo-actions. Pseudo-assistance leads to inadequate awareness of the activities being carried out. Thus, the state of intention to perform a regular act can be strained with the state of actuality and the achievement ™ of another act that unexpectedly interrupted the first one, and give rise to confidence in the commission of a regular act.


Pilot error

Pilot error


Thus, one of the mechanisms in the error state konsuetalnom pilot psevdodeystvy formation is experienced by the pilot acts as an integral, i.e. expected - continuously updated - with the result achieved. Psevdodeystvie is the result of pairing of complementary fragments of different acts. The basic condition for this is the high coupling operationalization of one of the acts.


The acts are of two types: действие и операция.

  • Action - such an act, which is completely controlled by the mind, it is the focus.
  • Operation is controlled only partially, on the periphery of attention. A person may, at their pleasure or the need to translate the act out of the limelight to the periphery and vice versa.


This operation differs from automatism, which never changes its status as an automatic act. Implementation of the act at the level of operations enables a person to perform two acts at the same time - due to the inferiority monitor the implementation of one of them. In these cases we act in which the error occurred, it is performed at the level of the operation and is controlled only its structural completion. And as psevdodeystvie formed - structurally complete the act, the erroneous action is experienced as properly executed.


Therefore, the operator is not aware of such an error and does not return to the interrupted activity, being sure that everything is done correctly.


We consider the psychological causes of erroneous actions of the pilots, a classification of errors. Special analysis of cases subject to landing on the fuselage. Offered psychological and technical means to prevent errors is not the landing gear during landing and the landing gear on the run.

For pilots, instructors, trainers, teachers, flight schools, as well as experts in the field of psychology and ergonomics.


This in itself frequent references in the scientific and journalistic literature of human error is an indication that the problem is not all right. It does not give even a single allegation that the errors are no longer relevant and that the means of combating them are found at work on the problem of errors written, probably not less than committed themselves errors.


Of course, people always committed mistakes. But until some time they were not interested in humanity, because it was believed that if a person knows how to do something right, then all violations are a consequence of his own unreasonable, for which he either himself suffered, or he should be punished. In other words, the orientation was on correctness, on providing the conditions and opportunities for correct activity, and the error was considered as a misunderstanding. But the attitude to mistakes changed dramatically, as soon as it was realized that a person would inevitably make mistakes in his work. This awareness is associated with the emergence of complex activities in which errors affect not only the person who made the mistake, but also on others completely in those innocent people. The first such complex activity was the locomotive engineer's profession.


Driver error can lead to massive loss of life, loss of expensive equipment and disruption of normal social life (for example, disruption of communication between cities). The work of a machinist is so difficult that no one can be guaranteed that he will never make a mistake in his work. This situation required a change in the attitude to the organization of activities: it became obvious that it was impossible to ensure the absolute correctness of the activity, but it was necessary to take some measures to neutralize the occurrence of errors and their consequences.


One of the first in Russia against the erroneous program was developed by railroad engineer I. Richter in the 80-ies of the XIX century. Thus, the problem of operator errors is more than 100 years. With the advent of new camera professions and their significant complication in comparison with the operation of the locomotive operator, the urgency of the topic has been increasing. For example, with the advent of aircraft with retractable landing gear, there were also cases of landing on the fuselage due to the fact that the pilot did not release the landing gear on landing. Since that time, there have been various explanations for the reasons for not releasing the chassis and the proposal to prevent such incidents. But despite the great attention paid to these incidents, they still occur. This means that in their analysis a significant moment has been missed.


Pilot error 2

Pilot error


From a psychological point of view, this omission is the lack of analysis of the subjective picture of the incident. Usually it is forgotten that the pilot was conscious and, therefore, the importance of various factors determined not so much by their presence, as the nature of their awareness. Therefore, when analyzing the error description is necessary as an external to the consciousness' factors and internal, that is, needs analysis of the nature reflect the situation in the mind of the pilot. Unfortunately, this point is very often ignored.


Trust appeal to the pilot gives very valuable information.


So, our message to the pilots, whose fault was not released chassis, has revealed a number of significant and totally unknown facts, which play an important role in the occurrence of incidents, namely the confidence of the pilot at fault, that he that errors are not made .


In-depth analysis of the content of consciousness is only possible pilots in the approach to the incident as a special single event, joining in a unique pattern of all the factors: the technical and psychological. Only such an approach is productive in many cases. But the fact is that now prevails a different approach, in which the object of analysis are the general properties of different mistakes in this particular case, all leveled, particularly subjective factors. At the same time it lost the essence of the incident, his specific reasons.