Aviation security program
Aviation security program



aviation security program should include procedures for the effective use of safety management in the operation of aircraft. The basis of the program is a preventative efforts to detect and eliminate hazards.

Under the provisions governing all aspects of international air transport is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed in 1944 52 countries, the delegates gathered in Chicago (the Chicago Convention). Under the Convention, a permanent body was established - the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). At the time of the convention ratified by more than 190 States which are members of the ICAO.

To ensure the safety, regularity and efficiency of air transport ICAO adopted 18 Annexes to the Chicago Convention. This specification, known as Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs). Applications cover the entire spectrum of civil aviation activities.

The need for international standards defined by:

  • the interdependence of international aviation; operational safety; Confidence States uniformity performance standard;
  • the practice; protection against the spread of unsafe practices;
  • the need to ensure an adequate level of safety.

International standards are accepted and implemented by States - ICAO members as a minimum requirement to ensure the safety of international air transport.

Requirements ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices are implemented by States:

  • development of national aviation laws and regulations;
  • creating a system of state regulation of aviation;
  • State education department of civil aviation, responsible for compliance with safety standards;
  • certification of operators, all the subjects and objects of civil aviation;
  • state supervision over compliance with the Standards.

Uniform application of the rules, procedures and practices in the performance of Sun Flight is a vital component of aviation safety. Therefore, states must harmonize their national regulations with ICAO standards and recommended practices.

In accordance with article 26 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation State, within whose territory the AP is required to institute an inquiry into the circumstances of his. This undertaking is feasible only if there is a proper investigation of the AP legislation.

Authority according to the AP investigation should be completely objective and impartial. It is necessary to form so that he could withstand political or other interference or pressure. It is desirable that such a body be independent of the HA administration and reports directly to the government or parliament. He must determine the causes of the AP and to formulate safety recommendations. However, the responsibility for the implementation of safety recommendations should be borne by the administration of HA.

The plenipotentiary body for the investigation of AP should be legally granted prompt and unrestricted access to all information relevant to the case, without any previous agreement with the judicial authorities or other agencies. The legislative document may provide for the prohibition of disclosure of certain documents and information received during the investigation. These materials are included in the final report only if they relate to the analysis of AP. Parts of the records that are not relevant to this analysis are not subject to publicity.

This point is very important because, for example, the cockpit voice recorder, provided voluntarily by the parties, the respondents in the course of the investigation, can be used improperly to further disciplinary, civil, administrative or criminal consideration. In addition, this information will not be communicated to persons to continue leading the investigation.

The Air Code of Ukraine is the main document that establishes the basic principles and norms of civil aviation in Ukraine. The current Air Code establishes mandatory requirements for aircraft certification, the suitability of aerodromes and their equipment for improving flight safety. Legislatively, the procedure for registering aircraft, airfields and their admission to operation is more stringent than in the previous USSR code. The regulatory framework, which complements the Air Code, includes the standards of airworthiness of civil aircraft, the suitability for the operation of civil aerodromes, the rules for the preparation and certification of aircraft, airports and routes, provisions for the classification of flight, control, technical personnel and other specialists. Special provisions for the regulation of safety and security issues are reflected in relevant government programs.

Currently, a strategic action plan to promote the safety, security and efficiency of international civil aviation. The strategic plan is consistent with the principles of the Convention GSAO the harmonious development of international civil aviation on a national and regional basis. To implement this plan, you must:

  • 1) encourage states to broadly (globally) implement ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices;
  • 2) develop and adopt new or improve existing Standards, Recommended Practices and related documents to meet the ever-changing needs of international civil aviation;
  • 3) strengthen the legislative framework for the governance of international civil aviation by developing new instruments and encouraging States to ratify existing legislative instruments;
  • 4) ensure the timeliness, coordination and implementation of regional air navigation plans and legislative framework for the effective implementation of new air navigation systems;
  • 5) timely adhere to the main requirements for the safe and effective development of civil aviation;
  • 6) provide coherent and effective governance of the economic regulation of international air transport;
  • 7) promote the mobilization of human, technical and financial resources for the development of civil aviation;
  • 8) to ensure the most effective ICAO actions in achieving the stated goals.

Each of these products provides certain key activities and expected results. For example, position 5 components are:

  • 5.1) implementation of Global Aviation Safety Plan, which includes:
  • 5.1.1) coordination of actions between government agencies and industry in order to guarantee a reduction in accidents in the world;
  • 5.1.2) a safety and human factors program;
  • 5.1.3) the rugged terrain safety program;
  • 5.1.4) provisions for responding to identified violations of safety standards;
  • 5.2) monitoring of volcanic activity for the purposes of international aviation;
  • 5.3) security of airports, air navigation facilities and services;
  • 5.4) the implementation of environment protection;
  • 5.5) overload warning airports and airspace (limitation of airport capacity and airspace);
  • 5.6) implementation of the facilitation program;
  • 5.7) emergency plan of action in an emergency, and others.

In each country, responsible for the safety of air transportation is the State Aviation Administration. It develops and implements methods and security procedures for a wide range of activities carried out within the national aviation system, in traffic control systems, aircraft certification and others.

Consider the strategic objectives of the Action Plan.

1. Flight safety. After a long and sustainable period of improvement of the flight safety system, the accident rate has stabilized at a fairly low level and has remained relatively unchanged over the past 20 years. This also indicates possible complications in the further reduction of the accident rate. The White House Commission on Aviation and Safety in February 1997 proposed a national goal of reducing the accident rate by 80% over the next 10 years. To achieve this goal, safety research is being carried out. Efforts are directed to support three key aspects, which are:

  • identification of deviations in the air transport system and risk management - the recognition of hidden potential dangers (threats) and keeping them in practice on the basis of monitoring; urgent operational and technical interventions and solutions at the local, national and international levels;
  • Accident prevention - detection of dangerous abnormalities in the activity of the air transport system, assessing their hazards and the development of effective measures to reduce accidents in civil aviation;
  • mitigation of accidents - reduce damage in the event of an accident.

2. Aviation security. Recent events in world civil aviation (September 11.09.2001, XNUMX) have focused attention on the negative destructive potential of terrorist attacks. Historically, transportation has always been among the most frequent targets of terrorist attacks. As the nature of threats changes all the time, the effectiveness of the security program (in particular, aviation security) needs to be continually reassessed. There are three key aspects to aviation security:

  • the creation of knowledge bases and risk management;
  • prevention of acts of unlawful interference;
  • mitigating the effects of acts of unlawful interference.

3. Efficiency of the air transport system.

The focus of this goal lies in the urgent and long-term modernization and evolution of the NAS, which should meet the needs of consumers. Modernization involves the introduction of new technologies and the use of interrelated operational practices. In fact, all the elements of the programs that are aimed at achieving the effectiveness of the NAS should necessarily be balanced with programs that focus on aviation safety in order to guarantee the selection of alternative options in the best interests of society. The key in the field of aviation security are:

  • defining the system architecture and the directions of its development;
  • implementation of a system architecture;
  • support action to ensure air traffic.

4. Environmental safety. The obviousness of this problem is generally recognized. Every experienced passenger is informed about the many operational constraints of airports, which are determined by the adverse impact of civil aviation on society, primarily noise. Several airports in Europe have problems limiting their capacity due to unfavorable conditions (noise) around them. In the next 5-10 years, it is expected that this problem will be relevantYet for the 20 of the most intensive EU airports. Although the introduction of aircraft with noise characteristics conforming to the provisions of chapter 3 of volume 1 of Annex 16 to the ICAO Convention, in many airlines of the world is almost complete, complaints of the public living in the vicinity of airports continue and limit the expansion or construction of new aviation complexes. Introduction of the 4 1 Volume 16 Standards (approved by the 33 Assembly of the ICAO in 2002) should help to regulate the problem, but the predicted traffic growth may lessen the effect of the introduction of aircraft in accordance with the requirements of the 4 chapter standards. It is envisaged that the forecasted growth of aviation services will cause a subsequent increase in the degree of noise impact on society.

Consistent with these results, and air pollution due to emission aircraft engines. on the Committee for Environmental Protection from the effects of aviation (CAEP) at ICAO is constantly concerned about the quality of local air pollution (in the vicinity of airports) and its global changes [673]. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol

on Climate Change (1992) draws attention to aviation emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A special report on the impact of aviation on the global atmosphere, published by the Interstate Commission on Climate Change (IPCC) in April 1999, indicates that aviation is destroying ozone (through nitrogen oxide emissions), acid rain and other global impacts. ... The potential effect of supersonic aircraft (including those expected to be commissioned in the next 10-15 years) on stratospheric ozone has also been found.

In the field of environmental safety main objectives are:

  • reduction of local air pollution - reducing emissions of pollutants that endanger public health and of the environment;
  • reduction in the emission of pollutants that affect the global climate and stratospheric ozone - reducing pollution caused by emissions primarily of nitrogen oxides;
  • reduce the impact of aircraft noise - reducing noise levels around airports and in other places where aircraft noise is unfavorable for the environment.

It is important to understand the role of new technologies in the US modernized and adapted to improve the efficiency and security. Prescription FAA № 8040.4 [849], issued June 28 1998, at introducing the practice of risk management policy, requiring all departments FAA to develop and implement a risk management program in accordance with the activities of these units. The FAA will use formal and documented decision-making processes, in order to adresovyvat risks to the consequences of these decisions for the entire life cycle.

risk management program is supported by a structural engineering system, a separate specialization which is to support the security system. The program is a complex engineering and management principles, criteria and control methods (optimization) security. The purpose of the security system is to optimize the security on the basis of identification of all infringing its risks, their limitation and control of organizational, structural and operational methods.

The security system is based on the following principles:

  • 1) it is introduced into the NAS or into its subsystem gradually and in a cost-effective manner;
  • 2) hazards associated with the system are continuously identified, observed, evaluated and limited to acceptable risk values;
  • 3) efforts to ensure safety must be consistent with best safety practices;
  • 4) statistical data of safety assessment are constantly reviewed, analyzed and predicted;
  • 5) the most important information and selected safety data are documented as “safety lessons” and are available to the public through a variety of information sources;
  • 6) risks are observed throughout the entire life cycle of the system; life cycle decomposition is performed to simplify and improve the reliability of observation;
  • 7) requirements for the design, configuration and purpose of the system are constantly changing, but so that the level of risk is acceptable and meets the established requirements.


It proposed five phases of risk management, each of which takes into account the principles of security:

  • Planning - the risk management process is predetermined in advance and documented in the plans, which include an acceptable risk criteria;
  • Hazard identification - the identification and assessment of hazards (threats) plans to determine the hazard risks associated with the system (objects, processes);
  • Analysis - Risks are characterized in accordance with the seriousness of their consequences, and the reliability of their education;
  • comparative assessment of safety - safety is determined by matching the eligibility criteria set out in the planning; assessment results are sent in a form adapted to the decision;
  • decision - performed a comparative evaluation of the hazards of different options.

At the heart of risk management are of quantitative and qualitative analysis, but the advantage provided quantitative estimates. As a means of justification solutions used to compare (the comparator) risk assessment of the dangers.

Control of the system is implemented and documented in the structure of the process control system throughout its life cycle. Thus, the security system - a single element management system processes.

At the global level, such a process is the functioning of US throughout its life cycle.

It can be argued that the FAA [849] prescription is a tool for integrating the safety system into the life cycle of the ASN. Integration is achieved using the steps and tools of the risk management system - Operational Safety Assessments; requirements of operational safety (Operational Safety Requirements); comparative hazard assessment (Comparative Safety Assessments); preliminary analysis hazards (Preliminary Hazard Analyses); hazard analysis subsystem (Subsystem Hazard Analyses); hazard analysis system (System Hazard Analyses); hazard analysis operation and maintenance (Operation and Support Hazard Analyses);

monitoring of hazards and risks permission problems (Hazard Tracking and Risk Resolution), and others. Each of the steps and tools takes its place in the life cycle of the system as a whole or an individual process.

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