Rocket land - land: photo, specifications, video
Rocket land - land: photo, specifications, video

Rocket land - land: photo, specifications, video

The earth-to-earth rocket (ship-to-earth, ship-to-ship, earth-to-ship, surface-to-surface) is the widest family of combat missiles, whose representatives are used to hit targets on the surface of the earth and water, as well as the enemy’s deep objects. Usually they are part of the missile complex. The surface-to-surface missiles are referred to as “SSM” (surface-to-surface missile) or “GGM” (ground-to-ground missile) in English literature, while the French designation is “SS” (sol-sol).


It is worth noting that surface-to-surface missiles differ in range, purpose, character of flight, propulsion systems, control systems, and other indicators.


The launch of the surface-to-surface missile can take place from portable devices, from towed or self-propelled installations, from ships of various types or fixed structures. The flight of missiles of this class is carried out as in other cases due to thrust, which is created due to the work of a jet engine. Usually, stabilizers are used to give stability to the rocket in flight, and kinetic energies from the engine or wings are used to create lift (the flight takes place along a ballistic trajectory). The first guided missile of the earth-to-land family was the German V-1.

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Modern modifications of missiles of this class are usually managed, as they contain special equipment on board, which is controlled by the flight of a rocket during the entire flight or its separate part in order to ensure destruction of the target. Unguided rockets in Russia (earlier, in the USSR) are also called missiles (NURS).


Earth-to-Earth missiles


One of the hallmarks of the classification of missile weapons was the position of the start and target. However, the belonging of a rocket (or rather, a rocket complex) to the earth-to-earth class does not yet explain its type, purpose, or peculiarities of action.


A more detailed classification of missile systems varies in different countries. In Russia, the division of land-ground complexes into strategic, operational-tactical and tactical is adopted, which corresponds to the constituent components of the art of war — operational art, tactics, and strategy. This allows you to clearly define the place in the weapons system, the range of tasks to be solved, the principle of combat use. Within one class, components may differ in trajectory (ballistic or cruise), range, power, and types of combat units used, guidance systems, engine types, combat readiness, mobility of combat installations, etc.

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Tactical RKs are used for fire support of troops, destruction of targets in combat areas. The range of their use is determined by the depth of the tasks of the formations; as a result, the combat units are distinguished by a wide variety of high-explosive, anti-tank, thermobaric, incendiary, and nuclear. Complexes with unguided Luna-M missiles are outdated, modern tactical missiles (for example, Prithvi-1, Tochka-U) belong to a controlled type of weapon. But the increase in the firing range, the introduction of cluster warheads and corrected missiles with anti-targeting components in the vicinity of RSLA, in terms of value and capabilities for tactical missile systems. A vivid example of this is the adjustable rocket launchers of the MLRS Smerch, domestic production.

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For successful operation


Operational-tactical complexes are used to destroy enemy control points, airfields, fire weapons, anti-missile and air defense facilities, important group and point targets at operational depth relative to the front line, are used in the interests of large military formations, and also in accordance with the general plan of a front operation or army. The requirements of high operational efficiency and the use in combat formations of the troops determined the deployment of operational tactical complexes, as well as tactical ones located on a self-propelled chassis. According to different classifications, the maximum range of their use is determined in 300-500 kilometers. Tactical complexes act as an intermediate step between strategic and tactical missile weapons. But it was they who vividly demonstrated the capabilities of the “long-range missiles” in combat conditions at the end of 20 - at the beginning of the 21 century. No wonder that the Iskander operational-tactical complex became one of the most important weapons systems of the Russian army. The improvement of the guidance systems makes it possible to reduce the circular probable deviation to several tens of meters. Together with an increase in the power of conventional combat units (penetrating, cluster, increased high-explosive action), which made it possible to achieve high efficiency of hitting targets without the use of nuclear combat units.

launch of a cruise missile from the Iskander complex




The very purpose of strategic missiles determines the need for thermonuclear (nuclear) combat units, whose power not only compensates for the deviation of hits, but also makes it possible to hit highly protected targets and also inflict damage to the enemy at an “unacceptable level”. The painful parts are separable and monoblock. The American LGM-30G “Minuteman-3” American-made rocket, for example, can send a 13 3 warhead with 200 units each to a range of 36 km. Domestic super-heavy P-36M and P-2М11 are characterized by a range of 0,5 thousand km, the head units of ten warheads with a capacity of about 15 megatons or monoblock extra-large. To achieve the necessary range of strategic missiles produce multi-stage. Ground-based ICBMs are installed either on mobile installations or in mines, ground (158P15 Topol, 645P15 Pioneer) or railroad (961PXNUMX Well done).

strategic mobile complex "Topol"

Intercontinental complexes (more than 5,5 thousand km), as well as medium-range complexes (1 thousand - 5,5 thousand km) are distinguished by the firing range - the last under the 1987 agreement on the elimination of the INF of the INF. The same treaty also banned “short-range” ballistic missiles (namely, 500-1000 km) and land-based long-range cruise missiles. Although, if necessary, strategic ground-based cruise missiles can be revived. Experience shows how easily our partners step over agreements.