Development of rocket planes in the USSR
Development of rocket planes in the USSR

Development of rocket planes in the USSR


In 1940 of pilot VP Fedorov flew to the missile-carrying SC-9 (Sergei Korolev-9) design of our compatriot, one of the founders of the Soviet space program. The aircraft rocket engine was installed RDA-1-150, created by LS Dushkin based engine ORM-65 design Glushko.

1941 In August, it was decided to build the Soviet fighter with a liquid propellant rocket engine (LRE). This aircraft was intended to carry out a single attack on an air target in one flight. A short time of engine operation should be, according to the designers' idea, sufficient to gain the required height in a short time.

After the attack aircraft, using aerodynamic quality, I had to land at the airfield. It was a bold project. Implementation of the plan could not have a positive outcome. Knowledge in the field of flying objects flying at high speed was not enough. It has not been studied questions of stability and controllability of the aircraft flying at speeds of up to 800 km / h (design speed fighter). Serious problems were liquid jet. Even a bench test it does not always end well.

The aircraft was designed by A.I.Bereznyak and A.M. Isaev under the leadership of V.F. Bolkhovitinov. Hence the name of the aircraft - BI-1. The first flight took place on May 15, 1942. The engine operation time was 66 s. The flight lasted 3 minutes 9 seconds. Flight altitude - 840 m, flight speed - 400 km / h, vertical climb speed - 23 m / s. The test flight was performed by Captain G. Ya. Bakhchivanji, he alone continued to test this aircraft.


birch Isayev


In subsequent flights it had reached the height of 4000 m, flight duration - more than 6 min.

27 1943 March was held the seventh test flight GY Bah- chivandzhi Bi-1. In accordance with the task needed to reach the speed of 750-800 km / h. In this flight brave pilots died. It was the last flight of the domestic jet Bi-1.




After World War II the advanced countries of the world have revised their policies in the field of combat aircraft. In the middle of 1940-ies. in the United States were built experimental rocket plane Bell X-1 and Bell X-2. This took into account the results of the development and operational use of the German wartime rocket plane Me-163.


Bell X-1


The first flight on the aircraft Bell X-1 was in December 1946, with the duration of the flight a little over 4 rocket-minute plan could reach speeds of 2560 km / h and climb to an altitude of more than

21000 m. For the first time in November 14 miret1947 city by plane Bell X-1 reached supersonic speed - 1 224,5 km / h at an altitude of 10800 m. The flight was made an American pilot, Captain Robert Yeager. The significance of such flights can not be overestimated: a response was received to the question on the behavior of the aircraft on sound and supersonic speeds.

In 1953 the firm of "North America" ​​was designed and built an unmanned experimental aircraft Laboratory X-10.

Power plant: two Ju-40 engines (another designation - J-33). A jet engine with a centrifugal compressor has been bench tested in Lynn, flight tests in California. For the first time, the new engine was installed on the R-80 aircraft. Flight tests of the aircraft provided a large and useful scientific material that was used in the development of new aircraft. In the aircraft industry, the X-10 layout was later used: the shape of the wing, the tail.




16 September 1956, the American pilot Everest plane Bell X-2 reached speeds in 3 times the sound.

Outstanding speed record for rocket planes were established by American pilots in 1960-ies. Bella on the plane X-15.

Rocket engines, particularly liquids, have been used as an additional power plant, operated at the start of the aircraft. This facilitated the implementation of take-off. Engines could be built-in or suspended.


Military aviation

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