Gagarin Aircraft
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Gagarin Aircraft

Gagarin Aircraft

Gagarin Aircraft

Circumstances of the accident. GETTING STARTED State Commission.

March 27 1968 10 hours at 18 minutes from the Chkalovsky airfield plane took off UTI MiG-15. The first cabin was Yuri Gagarin, in the second, as it should be the instructor, ranked Seregin.

After take-off, after making two turns, they reached the "Rubezh" point and, with a magnetic course MK = 70 °, started climbing to the zone No. 20 (this is the district of Kirzhach, Vladimir region) where they had to carry out the planned exercises. In the mission for this flight, they were instructed: ". Simple aerobatics with the implementation of coordinated turns at 360 °, as well as slides and dives with a pitch angle of 20-30 °. " The crew was allowed to reduce and simplify the execution of exercises, depending on the weather conditions and configuration of the aircraft, which was formed by suspension of two fuel tanks with an capacity of 260 liters each. The radio talks with the flight director (RP) were conducted by Yu. Gagarin, having the callsign 625.

The flight proceeded normally, which is confirmed by the content of the radio exchange between 625 and the RP. It is established that between the 7 and 8-th radio exchanges the crew performed two coordinated reversals and was in this part of the flight at an altitude of 4200 m with a magnetic course of MK = 70 ° of slightly more than four minutes. Then the pilots decide to stop further work in the zone and return to the airfield, although they could fly more than 25 minutes for the fuel supply. Gagarin's voice in this last radio exchange was calm, without disturbing intonations. Approximately two minutes after this RP began to ask 625-go about the height, but he did not answer.

Start Search box, and in the afternoon in a wooded area south-west of the village Novoselovo (15 km south of Kirzhach) found the crash site.

The crew of the search helicopter inspected the scene only from the air, since there was no suitable landing site near. There was still hope that Y. Gagarin and V. Seryogin managed to eject and were waiting for the message from the end of the day. crew on the radio or alarm information over the phone from the settlements of the area. Alas, the message was not and it became clear that the crew died.

For the protection of aircraft crash site were involved units from the military air defense units stationed in the area. They arrived and cordoned off the crash site until the end of the day. As it turned out during this time on the site of the catastrophe locals have visited.

The next day, when it was just beginning to dawn, a group of specialists from the State Committee of the Russian Federation arrived by helicopter for an initial inspection of the crash site. Dense forest, tall large trees, a meter deep snow, distance from roads - all this seriously hampered the work of specialists, especially in collecting the destroyed parts of the aircraft and assessing the nature of its collision with the ground. The scatter curves of aircraft parts at the crash site are presented.

Gagarin's plane crashed

The plane, like a crystal vase, fallen on a concrete floor, collapsed into small parts. Massive power elements of the glider design, such as tail, part of the wing or fuselage, which is typical for most air crashes, were not here. The RD-45FA engine collapsed into separate units: a compressor, a drive unit for aggregates, a turbine, etc. Approaching the ground, the plane cut, split and threw away 14 trees. From its impact on the ground and the subsequent explosion, a funnel was formed. The very funnel and the place around it were flooded with kerosene (fuel), but there was no fire. The scatter of details and assemblies was small. The bulk of them lay within 50-70 m from the funnel in the direction of flight of the aircraft.

All this indicated that the plane had high speed, approached the ground at a high angle and, apparently, the blow was a frontal one. This means that the instrument scales should have left footprints from the arrows, which could be used to assess the state of the systems and the parameters of their work at the time of the collision of the aircraft with the ground. It was necessary to find the parts and components of the destroyed devices. It is also important and it was necessary to find the nodes and elements of the aircraft control system. The task of finding and collecting parts of the aircraft, including the smallest ones, is not done quickly managed. Many parts and assemblies have failed in the snow, and until it melted, it was impossible to find them.

Careful examination of the crash site of the aircraft and the amount of collected material does not have analogues in the world practice, the investigation of aircraft accidents. It has raised more than 90% of dry weight of the aircraft, while usually collect no more than 60%. Found all of the engine power and the basic elements of airframe, all instruments and avionics units, all units and components of aircraft control systems. All this is under investigation in specialized laboratories Research Institute Erato Air Force.

There were found fragments of birds. They are shown in the CRIC and is also an object of research.

The crew of the plane was completely destroyed. The degree of destruction of bodies can be judged from the photographs shown in Fig. 2 and 3. Some fragments were found at the site of the fall, others were extracted from the destroyed parts of the structure when they were inspected. The left hand of Yuri Gagarin was found in the wreckage of the left panel of the first cabin. It was on the engine control knob (ORE). In the destroyed parts of the frame and the glazing of the lamp, a piece of flying leather jacket with a buttoned snake was found. There were food coupons in the dining room in the name of Yuri Gagarin and a miraculously preserved whole unopened packet of cigarettes. Among the wreckage of the cabin floor were found the remains of the pilots shoes: part of the boot, the sole. All the discovered remains were transferred to specialists of the medical subcommittee for their identification and special studies.

Over two weeks, continues at the crash site. Only when the snow melted it was possible to find and collect small pieces, parts and components of aircraft destroyed. In their places of raking and placers of the topsoil.

In addition to the territory shown on the crocs, the surrounding area was surveyed. In the eastern, southern and western directions at a distance of up to 3-5 km, and in the north, in the direction of approach of the aircraft, up to 12 km. This work was carried out by military units, numbering up to 100 people, for these sectors with the task of collecting everything that could have anything to do with the disaster. Soldiers, set up by a chain along the front at a distance of no more than 2 meters from each other, literally combed their sectors several times. Control over observance of the established order during carding was carried out from helicopters. According to the commander of the unit, whose soldiers worked in the northern sector, they trampled by mid-April all the young grass that had already appeared. As a result, all the metal that was in these territories was collected.

It was found more than two dozen metereologicheskih air balloons. As demonstrated by an assessment of their condition, they all belonged to the long-standing launches.

In the work on the collection and initial inspection of destroyed aircraft, this fact was also fixed. At the site of the fall, it was not possible to find the parachutes of the pilots. When inspecting the wreckage of the seats, it was established that the parachute system's halves were not torn off, but clearly cut off. Three days later, KGB officers who worked as part of the commission on their own line found parachutes in a nearby village. They were hidden in a dunghill. From such contact, reddish-red spots appeared on them, very similar to blood. The specialists who were supposed to conduct the research did not know about this and, after seeing the spots, first flinched, but then, of course, sorted out.

The work carried out on the site of the crash, have provided background information on the final conditions of the flight and to draw important conclusions. Of them indicated that almost all the aircraft was at the crash site, and the damage occurred from a collision with the ground. Consequently, in-flight aircraft collisions with other objects (with another aircraft, balloon, etc.) did not.

Quite accurately, an ellipse variation of parts and the direction of the cut trees was determined exchange rate fall - MK = 185 °.

The angle of the trajectory of the aircraft to the ground, a certain slice of the trees was within 50-54 °. An analysis of the scheme of trees cut, which is shown in Fig. 4, showed that the plane had a small list to starboard.

In late April, the work at the crash site were completed. Around funnel put a temporary wooden fence.

Butt cut the trees and stood intact throughout the years 1968.

In this place people began to come to pay homage to the dead pilots and honor their memory. Students come with their classes. Who of the guys tied to cut a birch pioneer tie and in June all the trees were cut 14 tied them.

Today, this place was built a memorial complex. In place of the funnel around its circumference, diameter 6 m, a marble parapet in the form of a ring. In the center of red granite stele, which carved profiles of Yuri Gagarin and Vladimir Seregin.

the place of death of Gagarin

Every year in March 27 are going to a lot of people. Delegations coming from various organizations and cities. Held a mourning rally, laying flowers.

Our people remember, and hold sacred the memory of them.

 

ENGINEERING WORK SUB

The main objective was to determine the engineering subcommittee condition and performance of aircraft, namely whether it is refused and if these failures could cause a catastrophe.

At present, this task is successfully solved on the basis of the analysis of the information of automatic flight parameter registration systems. They are called "black boxes", although outwardly the block-store of this information is always colored with a bright orange color, which facilitates its search. Then on the UTI MiG-15 aircraft such systems were not installed. On them stood the simplest barospodographs of the type K2-59, recording only the height and speed of flight on a paper sheet. Such an instrument was also on the plane of Yu. Gagarin and V. Seregin. His remains were found, but it turned out that due to an oversight and the fault of the technical staff in preparing the aircraft for the flight, it was not loaded. This meant that information about the most important area for the investigation, from the point of the last radio exchange to the collision with the earth, was lost. This final stage of the flight is usually called a site for the development of an emergency situation.

The results of the engineering subcommittee in this case, became essentially the only source of information on the basis of which it would be possible to obtain data on this site. That is why it is so carefully and meticulously carried out the collection and study of all the objects of the destroyed aircraft.

On the first day after the disaster, specialists collected and brought to the institute only what was on the surface of the snow and in the funnel. Later, the collection was carried out by the personnel of the military unit, which guarded the place of the fall from the first day of the catastrophe. As the snow melted, all the fine details, knots, and aggregates emerged. They were collected and simultaneously raked part of the upper layer of the earth around them. The collected fragments of construction and earth were loaded into boxes and delivered to the institute by helicopters, in a specially designated hangar. The contents of the boxes were poured out onto a clean area where specialists were selected

and assorted items as belonging to a particular type of equipment. On the floor of the hangar were painted several circuits of the aircraft, and stood next to defective aircraft UTI MiG-15 with open hatches, so that you can compare the results with the damaged parts properly and accurately determine their location on board the aircraft. Further, all results of the system laid out on the circuit plane, were presented to members of the State Commission, and here were decisions on the direction of research facilities to the relevant laboratory.

First of all it was necessary to obtain information about the spatial position of the aircraft at the time of impact with the ground, on the magnitude of its velocity on the cut of a tree, as well as the operation of the engine at the moment. It required management of the State Commission. The above problem was solved pretty quickly. Even on the first day of work at the crash site experts have gathered the most necessary for the investigation of the engine and components and certain equipment to aircraft equipment, in particular, two VSI VAR-75.

Study found that the engine was serviceable and functional during the entire flight. At the moment of impact with the ground he was on the mode, 9000-10000 / min. The validity of this conclusion is confirmed by a number of parameters of the engine, which are presented in Fig. 5.

Signs VAR-75 were severely destroyed, but managed to find their deformed scales. By a special technique with the use of shooting in infrared rays, it was possible to determine the position of the arrows at the moment of destruction. On the scales there were particles of luminous mass from the arrows. Subsequently, the bench was set such a rate of change in air pressure at the entrance to a working indicator VAR-75, so that its arrow took the position that was revealed on the scale of the destroyed device. The control device VAR-300 showed a speed of 145 m / s. Photos of the scales of the destroyed VAR-75 and control devices are presented.

With a vertical drop speed of the aircraft, it was possible to determine the speed of the aircraft at the corner of the cut trees. It was obtained by calculation on the basis of

Triangle velocity vectors. If adopted by the State Commission to an angle of 0 = 50 °, this rate was found to be 190 m / s, which corresponds to 684 km / h.

On why the calculated values ​​of the angle and speed have been accepted and left the commission as the main final flight parameters will be set forth below.

The spatial position of the aircraft at the time of collision with the earth was determined on the basis of the results of the study of the AGI-1 air horizon. It is established that their gyroscopes were functional until the last moment. This was evidenced by nadir on the bodies of gyromotors from rotating rotors. The marks from the arrows revealed on the scales were allowed to reconstruct their indications. The following values ​​are obtained: pitch angle 33 ° ± 3 ° (angle between the longitudinal axis direction of the aircraft and the horizon); And the angle of heel to the right side of y is 5-7 °. Reconstruction of indications of AGI-1 air horizons is presented in Fig. 8.

The above parameters were obtained in the first place, but at the same time other nodes, aggregates and instruments were also investigated. Of course, special attention was paid to the aircraft control system. It was possible to collect and lay out on the contour all of its traction, rocking and aggregates. Studies of all these facilities were conducted in two directions. First, it was necessary to establish whether the control system had failures and malfunctions of operational origin: disconnection of parts, jamming of the nodes and whether something like this could happen in flight. Secondly, it was necessary to determine the position of the steering surfaces at the moment of collision with the ground.

To analyze the nature of the destruction of parts not only for the presence of corrosion damage, but in what direction acted destructive force. This evaluation was carried out on all objects of the aircraft. To test and refine the results of this work for the first time in the practice of the investigation was conducted by volume layout, the essence of which is as follows.

According to the drawings and with the participation of specialists OKB. A. Mikoyan was made of wood layout of the power structure of the aircraft in full size, but without the skin. It was posted all the damaged parts of the control system. During the investigation, the layout was used to analyze the damage other systems.

The results of research management system showed that it was in good working before the end of the flight. The position of control surfaces of the aircraft at the point of collision with the ground is shown.

Comparison of the obtained data with the facts revealed at the site of the crash of the aircraft made it possible to reasonably restore its spatial position at that moment. The aircraft's roll to the starboard, mounted along the tree cut, was confirmed by a corresponding deviation of the ailerons by an angle of 4-5 °. The neutral position of the steering wheel can show the straight-line movement at the rate. But the elevator was fixed at the collision point, deviated from its neutral position by 16-18 °, for kapping. This gave serious grounds for assuming that the crew, with some delay, made efforts to bring the aircraft out of the dive. This interpretation of this fact had a decisive influence on the understanding of the nature and parameters of the movement of the aircraft at the time of the collision with the earth.

In the study of most other aggregates, instruments and systems of a destroyed aircraft, there were no special difficulties. The great experience of research in emergency equipment and the high level of methodological support that the Institute specialists had at that time allowed this laborious work to be carried out within one and a half months. However, it was not so easy to obtain reliable data on the most important objects and present them to the State Commission for adoption. The results were checked and rechecked by other experts and organizations. The study of watches is a typical example.

At the crash site, an onboard aviation clock frequency response and a wristwatch by Y. Gagarin "Superautomatic" were found. Despite the fact that they had serious damage, the State Commission placed great hopes on them, since it was only on the basis of the results of their research that it was possible to determine the time of the development of an emergency (from the last radio exchange to land) - the most important parameter for the investigation. Other sources for this information was not simple.

To do this, it was necessary to have copies of the same serviceable hours. With the frequency response, of course, the question did not arise, but where to find the same "Superavtomatic", it became a problem. At that time in the Union such watches had only two people-cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and G. Titov. These were gifts from a Swiss firm. G. Titov at first could not find his watch. He was asked to look for them in jewelery shops and watchmakers in Moscow. Alas, there they were not. We already planned to instruct the crew of a flight plane flying to Switzerland to buy and bring such watches, but G. Titov still managed to find them at home.

This provided an opportunity to study the clock. It was necessary to find on the articulated details of the internal mechanism the marks from the initial impact and through them to reach the position of the arrows. It was a subtle and complex, it is possible to say, jewelery research using the latest methods, tools and technologies for that time. Photos of the clock and the results of their research are shown in Fig. 10. The time for the development of an emergency was determined within 60-70 seconds. When this was first reported to the members of the State Commission, the deputy chairman of the KGB present at the meeting asked in surprise: "Who said that?". He was told that this time was established by the specialists of the Institute. He expressed doubt and suggested checking this value and the research methodology in the criminal laboratory of the KGB, where the executor of the research results was sent. The result was confirmed. Similar doubts were raised at the meeting of the second commission two more times. For the first time, the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs demanded to check the results of the investigation again in the criminal laboratory of this ministry. The second time a question was raised by one of the leaders of the industry, who insisted that the watch be checked in the Research Institute of the watch industry. These independent checks specified only the range of the error of the established time of the emergency development. As a result, the development time of the emergency situation, equal to 70 ± 5 sec, was adopted by the State Commission.

In the study of objects of an airplane UTI MiG-15 engineering experts subcommittee faced with the fact that in some cases fairly established fact it was difficult to explain and understand the consequence of what processes it is. Such engineering puzzles in the investigation were a few. Some of them have been solved during the investigation, while others, unfortunately - no.

When examining the instruments included in the remote gyromagnetic compass of the DGMK-3, fingerprints from the arrows at the course values, 1 ° and 275 ° respectively, were detected on two indexes of the course of UGK-285 (first and second cabs). The discrepancy with the actual course of the plane's fall was 90-100 °. If the compass was working and working at the time of impact, then the discrepancy between the readings of instruments and the actual course should not exceed 10 °. It is this cardan error that could arise due to the inclination of the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and its roll at the point of collision with the ground. Studies GU-2 showed that the gyro operates in a normal mode, the confirmation of which were the characteristic and numerous traces on the body from the rotation of the rotor. In this case, the cardan frame occupied the position in which a signal corresponding to the rate of approximately 1 ° was issued to the indicators of UGK-280. It turned out that a workable compass issued a course with a huge error. And although not all the instruments included in the compass of the DGMK-3 have been investigated yet, and the conditions of its work on the last part of the flight of the aircraft have been analyzed, some experts have made premature conclusions based on preliminary results.

The compass is defective - one of the heads of the engineering and aeronautical service for instrumentation made such a conclusion and reported this to the State Commission member to the Chief Engineer of the Air Force. He naturally demanded an explanation from the deputy head of the Institute for Research, which directly supervised the work of specialists. However, he could not give explanations, because he had not been informed about this yet. The specialist who carried out these studies did not even think of reporting to anyone, since the research process was underway and so far these are only assumptions. It was necessary to repeatedly check and recheck the results. Having dealt with the situation, deputy. On R & D made the appropriate suggestion to the specialist for showing preliminary results to "outsiders", and to all the others involved in the studies, it was pointed out that it is inadmissible to issue any information without the permission of the institute command.

Moreover, not only contacts with representatives of other organizations were limited, but also with the specialists of the Institute. Such a regime hampered the work of the performers, as it deprived them of the opportunity to consult or consult on emerging issues with specialists from other departments and departments of the institute. But the knowledge of the circumstances and conditions of the destruction of the aircraft are essential for a correct understanding of the results obtained by the performer in the study of his individual objects. The lack of such information seriously hampered the work of performers, which is well traced by the example of the study of compasses DGMK-3.

Two months the engineers were struggling over the question whether the compass is working or not. Having received evidence that the compass was operational and sound until the point of collision of the aircraft with the ground, they analyzed the nature of the destruction of the gyunagate GU-2. On the basis of the information received, they theoretically came to the following conclusion: the received indications for UGK-1 could appear only if a strong, retarding effect (their expression - the "log on the plane") was rendered for tenths of a second before the impact on the ground, , At which there was a breakdown of the two rear shock absorbers of the gyroagregat GU-2, and the device itself leaned forward at 60 °, resting against the body of another unit, the PAG-1F converter. Subsequently it was established that this is exactly what happened.

Experts came to the place of the disaster. They found the very "log", the first of a group of trees that the plane encountered. In Fig. 4 it is indicated by the number 13. At the cutoff point, the trunk diameter is 15 cm. The results of this part of the compass of the DGMK-3 are shown in Fig. 11. This was the most lengthy study within the engineering subcommittee, which took almost three months. But the specialists of the Institute knew about the cutting of trees from the first day, when they examined the place where the plane crashed. But they worked in other areas of the study and in connection with the ban, this information for experts in instrumentation was not available. In turn, the results obtained in the study of instruments included in the compass, in particular the potentiometric gauge of the MAC-3 course and the UGK-1 indicators, were also unknown to many other specialists and appeared to be unclaimed for solving the problem of determining the real trajectory Movement of the aircraft in an emergency area. This will be described in detail in the section "Version".

Research units of electrical equipment showed that they were all intact and worked up until it hit the ground. The power supply system provides consumers with DC power voltage 28V. Current charging is 10A that corresponds to the normally charged battery. Stator generator, electric fuel pumps and converters showed characteristic traces of rotating rotors. It was clear that all electrical damage occurred from the collision of the aircraft with the ground.

By the same conclusion experts who conducted the study of radio equipment of the plane. Telecommunication station ZM-RSIU been enabled and configured on 3-th channel to the RP. Radio compasses ARK-5 worked and was tuned to the frequency of the drive radio Chkalovsky airfield. Loop antenna radio compass focused on the drive station. Efficiency and modes of operation of radio equipment are confirmed by the results of physico-chemical studies of filaments of tubes and 6ZH1P 6B8.

Particular attention was paid to assessing the state of the connected station and the possibility of its work on the canal due to RP. In the emergency section of the flight crew on the relationship did not go out. Why? After the pilots had to inform the RP about the origin of on-board emergency situation. Radio engineer to make an informed conclusion if the crew was the need to contact the RP, they were able to do it. It remained only to press the "Transfer".

With the accumulation of research results intensified the understanding that the technique could not be the cause of the disaster. Therefore, continuing a general inspection of objects destroyed the aircraft, and case studies were performed to confirm the version put forward.

One of the first was considered the version of the explosion of cylinders. Such cases in aviation practice are rare, but in this incident, some reasons for the emergence of this version were. On the plane UTI MiG-15 installed oxygen, air and fireproof cylinders. Their placement is shown. They were found at the site of the fall in a damaged state, with clear signs of destruction from a blow to the ground. At the same time, a hole with fused edges was found on the oxygen cylinder and, most importantly, there was no date for the last check by the specialists of the Kotlovadzor service on this cylinder.

Read more:

All this infa Kuznetsovsky books. In many ways it was a fake. For example:
Performance and operating modes radio confirmed by the results of physico-chemical analysis of filaments of tubes and 6ZH1P 6B8.

Particular attention was paid to assessing the state of the connected station and the possibility of its work on the canal due to RP. In the emergency section of the flight crew on the relationship did not go out. Why? After the pilots had to inform the RP about the origin of on-board emergency situation. Radio engineer to make an informed conclusion if the crew was the need to contact the RP, they were able to do it. It remained only to press the "Transfer".
To work on the transfer of current consumption in 5-7 times more dead battery will not let anything peredat.6Zh1P pentode in the waiting room of the station. It has no relation to the transmission mode.

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