Military aviation
The Yak-1. A photo. Video. Characteristics. History.

The Yak-1



The plane Yak-1 is a Soviet fighter, which is actively used in the Second World War. This single-engined machine was designed under the guidance of renowned designer A. Yakovlev. The project originally had the designation as a fighter I-26, after state tests, he was accepted for serial production, where he received the well-known designation Yak-1. This machine was manufactured with 1940 year for four years, during all this time it was created 8734 apparatus of this brand.

History of the Yak-1

It is safe to say that the reason for the creation of this machine is the emergence of the German aircraft the Messerschmitt, who was a fighter with a very high flight and combat characteristics. It is because of the appearance of this machine, the Soviet government actively undertook the creation of the domestic counter. Initially we planned to upgrade the already created-16, but it did not bring any positive results.


Therefore, the government at the beginning of 39 of the last century set designers the task of making a quality Soviet fighter in short lines, so that it would not be inferior to the German analog. The best results in this regard were achieved by a group of designers under the leadership of Yakovlev. For the basis of the new fighter was taken lightweight sports car type I-7. This machine was distinguished by a high flight speed, which reached 330 km / h. The manufacturing of a full-scale machine was carried out at the aircraft factory No. 115, and the chief designer KV was in charge of the whole process. Sinelshchikov.

For the first time the Yak-1 aircraft made a detachment from the runway at the beginning of 40. During the second flight, this car developed a maximum speed of 587 km / h, and all this at an altitude of more than 5 thousand meters. During test flights, the device showed excellent flight characteristics and was handed over to state tests at the end of the spring of the same year. State officials did not even wait for the end of the tests. At the end of August 40, the machine was put into serial production. It was at a rapid pace, as the war began. At this time, this machine was almost in every aviation regiment.

Design Features Yak-1

The case of the machine was made in a mixed scheme and was a monoplane. The frame of the truss was made of pipes with the help of welded seams, the feature was that chromansil pipes were used. The entire paneling of the apparatus was made of duralumin. The nose of the car was made up of separate metal sheets, and the tailgate was more dense and fastened on stingers that were made of wood. The wings of the fighter Yak-1 were also made of wood and were constructed from two spars. The wings of the aircraft had a span of ten meters, and the area was 17,15 meters.


With regard to propulsion of the aircraft, it has been presented 12-cylinder engine, which had a V-shaped. The engine had the designation M-105 and was equipped with a liquid cooling system. Its volume was large enough and was 35 liters. At maximum speed it can supply power to the airplane 1,1 thousand horsepower.

The initial armament of the fighter was presented ShVAK gun type, which had a gauge in 22 mm. This weapon was taken near the cylinders. Furthermore gun ShKAS two synchronous systems were installed.

During the manufacture of this machine is almost constantly improved and modernized. Domestic designers carried out active development and modifications for this project. More advanced Yak-1 fighters were equipped with a new more powerful power plant, which had 200 horsepower more than the very first aircraft of this type. Also, a more advanced screw of the VISH-105SV type was installed, which is able to automatically change the pitch of the flight in flight. The car body was also facilitated. These metamorphoses increased all flight characteristics of the aircraft.

Also new fighter had more combat power, namely, the wing has been installed caliber machine gun 12,7 mm, from which it was possible to produce 220 shots. As for large-caliber guns, it had significantly increased the combat kit and could produce 140 volleys at the enemy. In addition to the merits, the Yak-1 and had many shortcomings, who tried to resolve the designers and manufacturers as they become available.

With Yak-1 our pilots during the war could exceed the enemy in the air. It is this device has received high recognition for pilots. A large number of pilots this machine was awarded the highest state awards.


In 1941, Germany attacked the USSR. About suddenness of the attack, you can argue, but the fact that the Soviet aircraft suffered heavy losses from the actions of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) at the beginning of the war is not in doubt. Among other reasons for the defeat of the Soviet Air Force can be called the technical backwardness of the material, more simply outdated aircraft. At the beginning of the war, the Soviet Union was the main fighter-16 and, by that time already obsolete and significantly inferior to the high-speed characteristics of the German Bf-109 both versions E and F (to the beginning of the war their relationship in the German part was about to 1 2, respectively).


The Yak-1 pilot


And in fact the speed is the most important indicator of the efficiency of a fighter, because without speed advantage can not be to impose a fight at favorable terms, or get away from it when the situation requires it, or to intercept enemy bombers or to help her. However, to realize this fact, Soviet engineers took a bloody lesson.

Also at that time in the part began to come more modern machines such as the Yak-1, 3-MiG and LaGG-3, but despite its higher first-speed performance, they are still inferior to the German main opponent - Bf-109FAlthough already caught up and even surpassed several Bf-109E. In addition, they were "raw", not carried, and therefore had a lot of failures and breakdowns that did not contribute to their combat effectiveness. Among all three most "decent" looked Yak-1, and which is considered in this article.


The Yak-1 photo


Initially, the Yak-1 was designed as a front-line fighter, to gain superiority in the air at low and medium altitudes. For this reason, it had a lightweight design (compared to LaGG and MiG), in part due to a small fuel reserve and a weakened armament. The main problem of the MiG was the concept itself, for which it was developed. Namely, the fight at higher altitudes (above 5000m), where it was really an excellent fighter, but the problem was that battles at this altitude were extremely rare, because the Luftwaffe's strategic aviation was practically absent and the fighting was mainly at altitudes up to 3000m, Where planes of direct support of troops flew. And at this altitude, the MiG significantly lost its maneuverability and speed, i.e. Became useless.

But back to Yak. Being developed by the design bureau of A.S. Yakovlev and adopted in service in 1940 year, at the beginning of the war in parts of the Air Force of the RKKA there were about 800 Yak-1. The aircraft was equipped with an engine M-105PA, maximum power in 1100 hp, had a practical range of 650 km, the armament consisted of one 20mm ShVAK gun and two 7.62mm ShKAS machine guns mounted in the bow of the aircraft. Most of the fighters were lost in the first weeks of the war, as a result of the disorderly flight of the Red Army along with the Air Force, and very few of these planes actually took part in the battles. But those that accepted showed that the Yakovlev Design Bureau created a promising aircraft, because the advantage of Bf-109F over the speed of the Yak-1 near the ground was about 40 km / h, and the maneuverability, which becomes important when the difference in speed indicators of fighters of the warring countries is negligible , Was approximately equal in both fighters and was already more dependent on the ability of the pilot than on the capabilities of the aircraft.


The Yak-1 photo


And this despite the fact that the Yak-1 was made partly of wood, partly of cloth, and of a small amount of duralumin (against the all-metal German opponent). This all was not collected at the highest level, unfortunately the precision of assembly of domestic aviation plants of that time did not differ, because the slogan was "Let's give the front more planes!" And not "Let's give the front quality aircraft!" (It need not be said that The build quality of Bf-109 was at the highest level). Yes, and worked at these plants quite often, children and women, and not professionals who have been trained for this, but are drafted into the army ...

In addition, a big problem at the time was the lack of powerful and reliable engines. But tactical and technical data plane and are determined primarily by its engine (a vivid example of bad LaGG-3, which abruptly became very successful after it established a sufficiently powerful engine DB-82 and the aircraft became known as La-5). Yak-1 had before on 200 horsepower less than Bf-109F. Yet it should be noted that the beginning of operation "Messer" was in 1937 year, at the time of the war with the USSR, he was a civil war in Spain, the campaign in Poland, France and the Battle of Britain. It is revealed, if not all, then most of its shortcomings, which have been eliminated, and air battles with the USSR Air Force brainchild of Willie Messerschmidt came "in his prime," while the plane Yakovlev was still raw and "untried".


The Yak-1 dashboard


In order to eliminate the above disadvantages serious steps have been taken, which consisted of:

  • - Installation of forced motor M 105PF, with a capacity of 1210 hp
  • - Installation of the new drop-shaped glass cockpit, this improved overview, aerodynamics, and through the use of bronestekol also protect pilots
  • - Replacement of two machine guns ShKAS on the UX, which greatly increased firepower
  • - General improvement in the aerodynamics of the aircraft
  • - Reducing weight through the replacement of wooden and canvas design elements on duralumin


Features Yak-1

The / Modification Yak-1 Yak-1 Yak-1B Yak-1 M 105PF Yak-1 M 106P Yak-1M
Crew. 1
First flight 1940 1941 1942 1942 1942 1943
Length m 8.48 8.48 8.60
Wingspan, m 10.00 10.00 9.20
Wing area, m2 17.15 17.15 14.85
Empty weight, kg 2445 2490 2394 2412 2427 2133
Normal takeoff weight, kg 2950 2995 2883 2917 2927 2655
Power point
engine's type M-105PA M-105PA M-105PF M-105PF M-106-1sk M-105PF
Rated power, hp 1020 1210 1250 1210
Power take-off, HP 1100 1210 1350 1210
flight data
Maximum speed at the ground, km / h 472 437 531 510 535 545
Maximum speed at height, km / h 569 528 592 571 610 632
Practical range, km 650 760 700 650 650 585
The maximum rate of climb, m / min 877 806 926 833 893 1220
Practical ceiling, m 10000 9500 10050 10000 9900 10700
Gunnery 1 х 20-mm ShVAK cannon
2 x 7.62 mm ShKAS machine gun
1 х 20-mm ShVAK cannon
1 x 12.7 mm UBS machine gun


After the improvements, the plane was designated Yak-1B. Serial release of fighters started in September 1942 years. However, despite significant improvements in aircraft performance issue it was soon suspended due to the transition to the production of Yak-9, who had even higher performance characteristics and is already in some respects superior to his opponent's period - Bf-109G. For all the time it was released Yak 8734-1, including the modification of the "B" was produced 4188 units.

The successes of the Yak-1 were modest compared to Yak-9But we should not forget that the first handed down on themselves the most difficult period of the war and largely defined as successful design of the legendary "nine".



Military aviation


I wonder if the original planes of this model were preserved in museums ...

If we undertake to talk about the plane, you have to own theme. You have a few photos of the Yak-3 captioned as Yak-1. Including the title picture. And this, incidentally, is very different planes

As for me, this is a very nice plane. Despite the fact that he is old enough, or rather the first one from the entire Yakovlev lineup, he at that time did much to protect our homeland. By right, this percussion device can be called the prototype of all Yakovlev fighters. It's not strange but "the first pancake did not become a lump", I think that precisely because of this successful model, Yakovlev and the whole ego team of designers were able to achieve high state marks and recognition in the world. If the Yak-1 machine were not successful, maybe Yakovlev and the ego projects would not have financed it. In general, this old man worked for the glory in his time

First of all, Yak-1 is notable for being the first combat vehicle designed in A. Yakovlev in its design bureau. It was in this plane that the designer realized the idea of ​​creating a single-engine light fighter in accordance with the then prevailing ideas of speed and altitude, which determine victory. But brought the minder. The new powerful engine conceived for installation on the Yak-1 could not be created. After a thorough analysis of the LTX available from the alleged enemy equipment domestic experts concluded that the large ceiling for a new aircraft is not so important in comparison with the speed and indicators of maneuverability. Therefore, all efforts were aimed at improving the weight characteristics.
Serial Yak-1 has repeatedly been subjected to modification on the basis of their operational use, and taking into account the tactical tasks. Since the autumn of 1941 airplanes started placing reactive weapons, which proved to be effective for hitting multiple targets only. If there is probability dueling fight allowed him to dump. On the outstanding flight characteristics of the aircraft accuracy of all reflected in the fact that the French-pilots of "Normandie-Niemen" in 1943 was chosen for themselves is the Yak-1.
As the amount of combat performance Yak-1 considered, without a doubt, the best Soviet fighter serial pre-war and war period.

I think that this device can rightfully be considered the first quality product of Yakovlev, which made the world designer a design and ego design bureau. Analyzing the parameters of the car and the testimonies of the pilots of that time, it is safe to say that the Yak-1 aircraft made a very big contribution to the aircraft industry of our fatherland. I do not even know how the aerial battles would end in the Second World War in the absence of this fighter. Due to the mass of advantages and advantages this model really protected our sky from enemy raids. In my opinion, this aircraft was very successful due to the combination of high flying performance and due to the fact that the designers installed a very powerful at that time combat kit.


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