The Yak-9
Military aviation
The Yak-9. Characteristics. A photo. Video. History.

The Yak-9. Characteristics. A photo. Video. History.



Yak-9 - aircraft developed by Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1942 year, adopted by the Air Force of the Red Army at the end of the same year. The aircraft is a single-seat fighter - monoplane with a liquid-cooled engine. The first operation in which the aircraft took part, was the Battle of Stalingrad, the importance of which history can not be overemphasized.

Yak-9 most massive Soviet fighter of World War II, was produced in the amount of about 17000 units of various modifications. The main reason for this was the high efficiency of the aircraft as a fighting unit, high aircraft performance data and simple design that will lead to the mass production in time of war as soon as possible. However, what is so special was the Yak-9?

The Yak-9 in flight

Let's start from the history. In the summer of 1941 years of Air Force first met in battle the German Luftwaffe, which is numerically inferior, superior to materiel, training and experience of the personnel of the Air Force of the Soviet Union.

It would be incorrect to say that only this determined the defeat of the Air Force, because a considerable part of the air defeat was made by the rapidly advancing ground units of the Wehrmacht. However, nevertheless, the fact of technical backwardness at the time of the beginning of the war certainly played its role. Slowly coming in parts of the Yak-1, MiG-3 and LaGG-3 - the most modern fighters of the USSR at that time were initially inferior to the German Bf-109F, it became clear after a very short period of time. Almost immediately, attempts were made to eliminate this lag by making changes to the above-mentioned samples of equipment.

The Yak-9 heroes

But it has not made the desired effect, and it soon became clear that we need a completely new fighter. Yakovlev Design Bureau in parallel with the operational development of the Yak and Yak-1-7 (developed on its own initiative on the basis of training aircraft) and engaged in designing new fighter will end up with the name of the Yak-9.

Appeared at the end of 1942, the Yak-9 was designed on the basis of the Yak-7 and Yak-1, absorbed the best features of both machines and the experience of almost a year and a half of the war, which led to its success. In addition, the assembly culture of the machines improved somewhat, the design was lightened due to the use of duralumin and the forced M-105PF engine was installed, which significantly improved the aircraft's flight performance. By the time the Yak-9 was released, the Bf-109G had become the main fighter in service with the Luftwaffe, with a more powerful engine than its predecessor. However, even he no longer provided an overwhelming technical advantage to his pilot, over the pilot of the Yak-9, only slightly surpassing the second in speed at altitudes of more than 5000m and climb rate at all altitudes, but yielding in a horizontal bend. The pilots considered the main disadvantage of the Yak-9 to be low power weapons (one 20mm ShVAK cannon and one 12.7mm UB machine gun). The firepower was deliberately reduced in order to reduce the weight of the aircraft and improve its characteristics, for the same reason the aircraft had a fairly small fuel supply - only 320 kg, which somewhat limited its scope. However, work on improving the Yak-9 was carried out throughout the war and even after its end. The Yak-9 had 22 modifications, 15 of which were serially built.

And became the first modification of the Yak-9D with increased fuel to 480kg and Yak-9T equipped 37mm automatic cannon NS-37. The issue began in the summer of 1943 years.

Yak-9 scheme


A few words should be said regarding the option "T". Installation of such a powerful weapon in the fighter pilots was perceived ambiguously. On the one hand, one hit with a gun was enough to kill any enemy fighter aircraft (bombers usually was enough 2-3 hit), but on the other - rate of gun was 240 rounds per minute (4 shots per second), and even though it is high indicator for 37 mm guns, but it is low for aircraft guns.


In addition, the gun had a strong return, and only the first projectile, when firing a burst, flew exactly to the target and another 2-3 shell not far from it. Therefore, for the effective use of an aircraft with a similar weapon, it was necessary to have a high accuracy of firing, which not all pilots possessed. But those who possessed, just sow death and destruction. In addition, that the NS-37 cope with any aircraft, having armor-piercing projectiles in the tape, it still cope with 50-60mm armor, i.e. Could hit almost any enemy tank (the upper armor of tanks never differed in special thickness), and even to let a small-sized vessel to the bottom.

After that, Yakovlev Design Bureau has gone even further by setting 45mm NA-45 gun on his plane. He got the name of Yak-9K. However, it is clear that even if we could use the gun 37mm not all, the 45mm even more. Therefore, and even because of the poor performance of the aircraft cannon of this modification is not mass produced.

The next version became mass Yak-9M, which had the capacity tanks like the Yak-9D and the possibility of NA-37 like variant "T". In addition, it was equipped with a more powerful engine M-105PF-2 and generally have a modified structure, and hence higher performance characteristics. Release it began in 1944 year. He became a substitute in all parts of the previous versions, as has absorbed the advantages of each.

Yak-9 scheme


Also in the year 1944 appeared Yak-9DD, who had a supply of fuel in 630 kg and Yak-9R equipped with a camera for reconnaissance.


Then there was a remarkable car - Yak-9B, which had behind the cockpit pilot bombs, in which could be placed four 100kg bombs, or four cassettes on the 32 cumulative anti-tank bombs weighing 1.5 or 2.5 kg. Such aircraft were produced 109 units, and they generally proved to be good as light bombers. But they had one significant drawback: the bombers were positioned in such a way that when loading them the center of gravity was strongly displaced backwards, which had a very negative effect on the aircraft's flying qualities, in addition, when the bombs were dropped, the aircraft sharply "nodded", which was quite unsafe.


Haraktristiki Yak-9
  Yak-9 Yak-9D Yak-9DD Yak-9T Yak-9K
Crew 1
LengthM 8,5 8,6 8,66
WingspanM 9,74
wing area, M² 17,15
Empty weightKg 2200 2350 2346 2298 2291
Weight normal takeoffKg 2873 3174 3276 3025 3028
The mass of fuelKg 322 486 630 330 475
Engine 1 × M 105PF 1 × VC-105PF 1 × M 105PF 1 × VC-105PF
Power, h.p. (kw) 1 × 1180 (868)
Flight characteristics
Maximum speed at altitudeKm / h (m) 512 (0)
552 (1800)
577 (3900)
535 (0)
567 (1659)
591 (3650)
522 (0)
564 (1000)
584 (3900)
533 (0)
574 (2100)
597 (3930)
518 (0)
573 (3750)
Landing speedKm / h 130 143 145 144 142
Practical range, Km 848 1360 2285 735 598
ceilingM 10750 9800 9400 10000 10000
Time climb 5000 mMin 5,1 6,1 6,8 5,5 6,5
Time bends on 1000 m, 16-17 26 26 18-19 21-24
Wing loadingKg / m² 167 192 191 176 176
Thrust-to-weight ratioW / kg 306 272 263 283 283
Run-upM 320 370 400 380 345
MileageM 485 550 500 500 455
Cannonball 1 × 20 mm ShVAK
120 rds.
1 × 37 mm NS-37
30 rds.
1 × 45 mm NS-45
29 rds.
Machine-gun 1 × 12,7 mm UBS
200 rds.



The last of the big family "nines", who should be mentioned is the Yak-9U, which appeared at the end of the year 1943. He had a much improved aerodynamics, a new, more powerful engine M-107A and an additional machine gun UB. All this together greatly improved performance characteristics of the aircraft. But nedovedennost low engine life and problems with its cooling strongly "slowed down" the deployment of mass production, so the plane started to act in part until the end of the war.

In general, the Yak-9 - is a piece of national history. It was his appearance on the battlefield marked the end of unchallenged dominance in the air by German aircraft.


Yak-9 video

Military aviation

The cited article states that the armament of the Yak-9DD consisted of a cannon and a heavy machine gun. In other sources - that for general relief of the machine only from a gun. If the second is true, was it easy to install a machine gun in the field?
There were relatively few operations like the flight of 12 Yak-9DD to the SC Air Force in Italy, but there are plenty of operations where the gun alone was clearly not enough.
If the Yak-9DD was or could be converted to a standard weapon variant for the Yak-9, it remains only to regret that very few such aircraft were built (399 units) in comparison with 3058 Yak-9D and 4239 Yak-9M. Was the Yak-9DD more complex than these many modifications? But wasn’t the numerical advantage of Soviet aviation in 1944? It makes sense to ask a question: “Is it, as most Russians now think, that there was order in our country then, or was it some kind of ostentatious-digital order, in reality, for our ancestors is rather dangerous”? The fact that the complete set of the fuel system of the vast majority of Soviet fighters was determined not by specialists at the scene of the hostilities, but by "big uncles" in Moscow leaves an unpleasant aftertaste.

There was a variant of the Yak-9, providing for the adjustment of the number of fuel tanks depending on the task, with hatches under each of the eight tanks. This is the Yak-9DD (see table). As the historian S.V. Ivanov: "... The designers, taught by bitter experience, provided each tank with their filling neck." It was these fighters in 1944 that made the flight Balti - Bari (Italy) to help the Yugoslav partisans. One source says that they flew without hanging tanks, and the other that without additional ones. What does it mean? It is known that the political leadership of the USSR during the war years demanded that designers abandon the attachment points of outboard fuel tanks.
According to historians, the Yak-9DD had eight fuel tanks. How was gas distributed among them? Could these fighter jets fly to Bari, in a variant of the fuel system with less than eight tanks in their quantity?
In Bari, in a training and demonstration battle, the Yak-9DD showed its superiority over the American Mustang R-51 fighter. And how much gasoline was poured into the Yak-99DD for a training battle? Even more interesting is the question: “how many fuel tanks were left for this event?”. If someone doubts that this is an important point, let him compare the turn time, i.e. actually horizontal maneuverability of the first (two-tank) Yak-9 and modifications D and DD in the table. Is the success of the Yak-9DD the result of only the skill of a Soviet pilot, or did engineering and technical services try? In any case, for this, the designers created many prerequisites for this.

Due to the lower power of the V-M-105PF engines, the fighters equipped with them were not as fast as Soviet fighters with higher power engines. Therefore, more often than other types they were used to accompany the Il-2 attack aircraft, which just operated at such heights, where the power lag of the M-105PF from the enemy fighter engines was less, and the perfect aerodynamics of Soviet fighters in dense layers of air gave a certain advantage. There are recollections of more than one veteran pilot about such specialization of Soviet fighters (especially the lighter Yaks). There is also more than one evidence of veterans that these were the most dangerous missions for fighter pilots: when accompanied by relatively slow-moving IL-2s, they were vulnerable not only to attacks by enemy fighters, but also to fire from the ground.
He drew attention to the fact that the ratio of the number of Yak-1944B7M-9PF fighters lost in the air in 105 to their deliveries to the SC Air Force is almost 1,5 times lower than that of the Yak-9M-105PF.
As a version of the reason for the difference, I propose a difference in the arrangement of the fuel system of these machines. The vast majority of modifications of the Yak-9 had a four-tank fuel system for 480 kg of gasoline. The Yak-7B fuel system was designed for only 305 kg and at the same time I did not meet the memories of veterans with complaints that this was not enough. Especially enough when accompanied by IL-2 with their relatively small radius of action.
It seems that the problem was that the design of the fuel system of most modifications of Jacob did not provide for the dismantling of part of the tanks - only the outermost tanks had filling necks.

Nowhere did I find the flight characteristics of the Yak-9M with the VK-105PF2 engine. The fact is that the Yak-9 with the M-105PF engine was inferior to the German and even some Italian fighters, not only in speed, but also in power supply. The VK-4200PF105 engine, more powerful in the altitude range up to 2 m, certainly gave the pilot more chances to return safely from the combat mission. Why do I consider this important? He counted the production of various fighters by Soviet factories in 1943 and 1944. He found information about the receipt of each type in air defense aircraft. The overwhelming majority who did not make it to air defense aviation is anyway front-line aviation.
At V.I. Alekseenko has data on the losses of fighters in the spacecraft air force in 1944. If we compare for each type of Soviet fighters, their number received by the spacecraft air force in 1943-44. with the number of those who did not return for various reasons from the combat mission, and lost in accidents, the Yak-1B will be the most “dangerous” for its pilots, and the second - the Yak-9 with the M-105PF motor.

class! Class!

Some comments are surprising - "not a single aircraft on the territory of the USSR was produced in such quantities ..." but what about the Po-2 and Il-2 ??? "The most massive 40x strike aircraft" - firstly, the fighter does not belong to strike aircraft, and secondly, if combat aircraft were meant, then how about the same Il-2 (36163), Spitfire- (20351), Me-109 (from 30 to 34 thousand) Fv-190 (20 thousand). "the quality and reliability of the machine were obtained ..." - probably because of the high quality and reliability, the non-combat losses were at least twice as high as the combat losses

Soviet fighter model Yak-9 as for me is a really high-quality fighting machine during the Second World War. The merit of the appearance of this device lies entirely on the shoulders of the legendary designer Alexander Yakovlev. In addition, it was manufactured accelerated pace in many plants, due to which it is the most massive attack aircraft 40-ies. Not one aircraft in the territory of the USSR and Russia are not produced in an amount of 16,7 thousand units.
When designing the machine, the designers relied on the development of such machinas as Yak-7 and Yak-1, so it's safe to say that the Yak-9 was a continuation and a qualitative modification of the previous machines. As for me, it is very similar to the 7 model, but in its turn it is more perfect in almost all parameters. The advantages of the new machine can be explained, by the large application of light metals and the accumulated experience in the production of Yak-7. By reducing the mass, it was possible to increase the fuel reserve to increase the radius of the aircraft. It was also possible to increase the number of equipment and weapons. In general, a magnificent and perfect car of that time, I just admire them!

Yak-9, developed as a logical development of the model line of lightweight single-engine fighter designs. Yakovlev, became the most massive aircraft of this type of war period. The fulfilled aerodynamic scheme allowed OKB engineers to concentrate on other areas of product improvement. Moreover, it became possible to make wider use of metal, the deficit of which gradually came to naught. The construction of the Yak-9 remained mixed, but already in the basic version the wing spars were combined of duralumin and steel. Subsequently, many wooden knots and parts were gradually replaced by metal knots. The gain in weight made it possible to increase the payload of the machine. Another feature of the Yak-9 was its saturation with instrumentation - the luxury that the creators of aircraft had imagined at the beginning of the war.
In modern terminology, the Yak-9 can be called a multi-purpose aircraft. Depending on the modification of the machine served as fighters, bombers, attack aircraft, fotorazvedchika, long-range aircraft and communications, the training board. Total Yak-9 22 was made in the embodiments, the serial 15. This official list is not exhaustive, as some military units and repair works were made operational modifications in arms, caused by the military requirements of the time and did not have its own alphabetic cipher.

That's really powerful military machine. During the second world with the help of the Yak-9 it shot down a huge number of enemy aircraft. I recently became interested in this subject, but I can say that Yakovlev aircraft were widely used in the fighting for our land. With regard to this model is its quality and reliability have been obtained at the expense of accumulated experience of designers on the previous models. Besides the high quality can be identified by the fact that the Yak-9 is the most popular serial fighter of the time.

I wonder how much this is a huge amount?

Take a look at the engine. Not Russian. Hispano-Suiza ...

Drew. Non-Russian. - that is, only the M-12 engine was a licensed copy of the HS-100Y. After him, by successive modernizations, Soviet motors were made by Klimov. M-103 and M-105. This is no longer the Spanish suizy, it is the Klimovs. The difference is enormous. From 740 hp it was brought to 1050. Further more. On the basis of the M-105, there were modifications to the M-105R reducer - without the possibility of installing a gun, M-105A for fighters, then an improved 105P model, Then a net in the characteristics, thanks to the minders from the Yakovlev design bureau. Increase in boost and voila M-4PF-105 hp, Then the Yakovlevites went further and VK-1260PF-3 105 hp suddenly appeared on the Yak-2, and on the Klimov itself, the intake and exhaust ducts were completely redone and the Spanish became not a two-valve, but 1350x valve, and the VK-4 was born 107 hp (the Yak-1620u was equipped with them in the series) Those from the 9 brought the power 740+. Immediately there were intermediate versions of engines that did not see the series. M-2 - three-valve heads were supposed to become the main one (the development of KB Klimov, but earlier Yakovlevtsy came out with a proposal with a proposal to increase the boost by 4A and 106P to the 105PF standard. The three-row M-105 according to the Y-shaped arrangement of blocks were generally ready ... But So, before disclosing the fact of copying, first understand the topic. This is not a show where you are in the spotlight and everyone applauds your sparkle and charm. Nothing personal, read the books