Piloting the great circle
Piloting the great circle using the exchange rate systems

Piloting the great circle using the exchange rate systems

Preparing the card for flight on the great circle track. The maps used for flights in civil aviation (1 scale: 1 000 000 and 1: 2 000 000), orthodromy length 1000 - 1200 kilometers is practically a straight line. This makes it possible to lay the cards on the great circle plots graphically (with a ruler), without payment of intermediate points on formulas. On the same path length can be performed with the flight orthodromic roadway around the corner from one reference meridian section.


The recommended laying system orthodromic travel angles on the flight map. If the flight path is not laid on the great circle, t. E. Must pass through certain specified items, it is divided into separate sections, where the great circle length should not exceed 1000-1200 km.

It is desirable that the initial plot point coincided with the turning points of the route (ISP). The division is not the route to the ISP points shall be permitted only at great length of straight sections of track.

Meridian starting points orthodromy area considered the reference meridians for measuring the travel angle. Great circle track angle from the first reference meridian to the first waypoint is measured directly from the reference meridian. Travel angles to the next waypoint is defined as the sum of the first track angle with the angle of the turn track on the first MRP:

For the flight back pad angles of travel performed by the reference meridians, which are finite in flight in the original direction. Therefore, the travel angle reverse direction will differ from the original direction on 180 ° plus correction for convergence of the meridians.

If the entire flight route passes along the Great Circle and has MRP, the laying of the travel angle is greatly simplified. In this case, the route should be divided into sections on the great circle 1000-1 200 km. Meridian initial plot points are considered in the calculation of the reference meridians orthodromic travel angles for the forward and reverse directions; these meridians and measured orthodromic travel angles.

Marking the route for flight travel from the great circle angle is the same as for a flight with magnetic loxodromic travel angles. Line path is divided into segments according 50 km from digitization through 100 km. To the right of each section between the APM feature is applied, over which states racesdistance between PPM and below the line - the set of flight time on the site. To the right is written GTC features.

The general procedure for the preparation of maps for the flight by ortodromicheskon track is recommended as follows:

1. Regardless of the presence of kinks, connect a straight line on the map with a section of the route of length 1200 m. The straight line drawn on the map will be the orthodromy of the section. In the future, all calculations of the travel angles should be made from this line.

2. Measure on the map with the protractor azimuth of orthodromy at the meridian passing through the starting point of the site.

3. Plot a predetermined track line on the map. To do this, connect the turning points of the route with straight lines.

4. For each segment of a given track line, calculate the orthodromic track angle. For each segment, except the first, this angle is measured and calculated from the azimuth of the orthodromy of the section, from the first orthodromic traveling angle, or from any meridian, taking into account the amendment on the convergence of the meridians.

5. Write on the map to the right of the route orthodromic travel angles.

6. Reference meridians of each section are marked on the map in red.

7. Apply at each meridian to the right of the route a correction value for the convergence of the given and reference meridians and the magnetic declination. When flying to the east, the amendment is recorded with a minus sign, while flying to the west with a plus sign. The recorded corrections for the convergence of this and reference meridians are used when calculating and plotting on the map the actual track and radio direction finding lines, and the corrections are taken into account with their own sign.

8. In case of the need to move from orthodromic reckoning to flight with magnetic travel angles, a table of magnetic travel angles is compiled for segments of a path of such length that the MPUs of neighboring segments differ by no more than 3 — 4.

flight operations. Flying in great circle track with coursework gyroscopic instruments, including CCP-52, carried out under the following scheme, which remains the same for all ortodromichesknh areas:

1. Prior to the span of the reference meridian for 20 — 30 km, coordinate the CS. Set the source data on the COP, GPK, NO-50, DAK-DB-5.

2. During the flight of the reference meridian, install an aircraft along the Ush to the calculated orthodromic course, check the correctness of the taken course for all duplicate course equipment.

3. Following the orthodromic line.

4. Correction of a gyro unit KS and GPC-52.

5. Monitoring and correcting the path.

6. An exit to the reference meridian of the turning point of the route.

If orthodromic path portion has fractures, t. E. Route turning points, these points in the plane to be installed on the corresponding rate GIC, which is the same as the azimuth of the great circle portion counted from a reference meridian.

In accordance with this general scheme and procedure execution method on each flight orthodromic site are as follows:

1. All course equipment must be turned on the ground after starting the engines. After warming up the instruments and accelerating the rotors of the gyroscopes, install the rounded value of the latitude φ of the initial point of the section on the GPC-52 and CS control panels.

For example, if the latitude of the site's terms 53 ° 32 ', it is necessary to establish the breadth of 54 °.

On DAK-DB set: latitude and longitude of the start point of the site, declination and Greenwich hour angle of the Sun, as well as to reset the trip distance to zero and set the calculated ground speed of the travel corrector.

On the scale of the declination to set the declination of the starting point of great circle area.

2. When crossing the reference meridian of the area, set the plane to the calculated true course equal to the traveling angle of the given orthodromy, corrected for the drift angle. Strictly maintaining this course, set the GPC-52 to the countdown corresponding to the true course, and switch the COP to the "GPC" mode of operation.

3. In carrying out the flight on the CCP with the estimated course of following, determine the angle of demolition and amend the settlement rate.

4. To reach the next given track angle, turn the aircraft on the GPC to the right or left for a new calculated course.

When the flight speed aircraft must begin a turn to exit to the next predetermined track angle to span the MRP according to the pre-calculated line turn anticipation (LUR).

5. Having installed a GPC plane for a course equal to the new given orthodromy track angle, adjusted for demolition, fly with this course to the next turning point, specifying the value of the amendment taken.

6. With a change in the latitude of the aircraft’s mean area by an amount equal to the next nearest division value on the “Latitude” scale, set the new value of latitude 52 on the GPC-1 and KS control panels.

7. When carrying out a flight with a CCP with settlement rates of destination, periodically monitor the readings of the CCP in the following ways:

a) by comparing the magnetic course of the aircraft on the magnetic compass with the true orthodromic course on the GPC - At each moment, the magnetic course on the magnetic compass should differ from the orthodromic course on the GPC by the sum of corrections for the angle of convergence of the reference meridian, the MS meridian:

For ease of comparison, the testimony of CPC and the magnetic compass is expedient to amend the total install on a scale of declinations VIII, after which the testimony of these devices must be the same within the accuracy of their work. The exchange rate systems that aggregate amendment may be added to the testimony of a magnetic course of CAA t. E. OK = MC + A, the result is compared with the testimony of NL (operating in the "GIC"). In the event of discrepancies in the testimony to make a correction;

b) a comparison of the orthodromic course on the astrocompass with the orthodromic course of the GPC. At each moment, these readings should coincide within the accuracy of the instruments.

8. Periodically, through 10 — 15 Flight of the Flight, determine the angle of drift and, using the data obtained, specify the course heading.

9. To ensure the most accurate exit of the aircraft to the starting point of the next orthodromic section, keep a track number and periodically determine the estimated position of the aircraft.

When flying on a great circle GIC rate, measured from the reference meridian great circle area, the calculation of the airplane and the radio bearing gasket on the map must be in the following order:

a) using the ARC or airborne radar to determine the course angle of the radio station or landmark


b) to determine the orthodromic bearing of the RNT or guideline as the sum of the orthodromic course (QA) for the GPC and the heading angle (CSD) of the TOR): ODA = OK + the TSCD (TSC);

c) for laying a true radio bearing on the map from the PHR meridian or a landmark, determine the true bearing of the aircraft, taking into account the correction for the angle of convergence of the reference meridian of the orthodromic section and the radio station or landmark

b) set the true course as the sum of the orthodromic course and the removed from the map corrections for the convergence of meridians on the ARC course scale or radar indicator;

c) read the aircraft's true bearing by the position of the ARK arrow or the radar indicator crossfire.

When used for radio direction-finding system COP-great-circle bearing the aircraft is measured directly on the Status arrow ARC (opposite end), and to obtain the true bearing of the aircraft is taken into account by

its sign Discontinued map correction for the angle of convergence of the meridian and the reference meridian station;

d) calculated the true bearing of the aircraft to lay on the map using a protractor, putting it on the meridian passing through the radio station.

10. Exit to the starting point of the next great circle area.

11. Set the plane on course Usha controlling the magnetic compass and astronomical. Set GIC per sample, corresponding to the MC during the flight of LPA; and en-loss - the value of the MC + Lm.o.m.

12. In the future, to fly in the same manner as described above in paragraphs. 3-10.

On airplanes with automatic guidance system of the course coordinator NO-50BM included in the VIII COP. Therefore, these aircraft corner of the card on the machine and the set point of the course winds NO-50 trip ticket is set to the great circle reckoning angle and range and lateral deviation is conducted with respect to a given great circle track.

On airplanes with autonomous operation of exchange rate instruments, where automatic exchange NO-50 included in the NL remote magnetic compass reckoning will be the coordinator of the magnetic heading. Since the actual flight will be operated with a constant great circle course and readings magnetic compass will change continuously in the reckoning path toward any mistakes, since the integration path will run along a curve, convex in the direction opposite to the magnetic rhumb line.

In order to ensure that no-50 readings can be used to control the way in the direction of, for example, to measure wind speed and direction at altitude, angle of the map NOR-50 should be set equal to the income statement, and in reading the magnetic compass periodically through 100-150 kilometers enter the total correction:

This total correction in magnetic compass readings entered via VIII declination scale.