Tupolev TB-1

Tupolev TB-1


TB-1 ranked first among the Soviet bombers. Also, it is considered the world's first all-metal bomber. In the early 20-ies in one of the meetings samolёtostroiteley raised the issue of the material used for aircraft. Most inclined to a tree, as in the Soviet Union it was a lot, but some insisted on all-metal construction.

A staunch defender of this theory was a young engineer AN Tupolev. Unlike others, he decided to prove his theory into practice. In 1923, he constructed a small-engine ANT-1 with the engine "Anzani" and in the spring of the following year showed triple ANT-2, which set engine "Bristol Lucifer." The first flight included a small wooden parts, in the second they were not there at all. But in both cases used for cladding kolchugalyuminy. This material is similar to the duralumin, it was created in the city of Kolchugino.

TB-1 scheme

Accordingly, the flight tests demonstrated the high difference in weight between the wood and aluminum. Although aluminum and heavier, it is still much stronger than wood. And in the case of the tree have to use thicker frames, ribs, stringers and longerons.

Later it was constructed biplane ANT-3. He was accepted into service of the Red Army.

The Soviet leadership was struck by the ability of the open all-metal aircraft, so in early November 1924, by order of the Special Technical Bureau was sent in order to create TsAGI TB-1 first bomber with an all-metal material. By air car presented the minimum requirements. The rate should be higher than 165 km / h, full aircraft load - 2000 kg. Since the very beginning of the TB-1 considered as a bomber surface enemy targets, it had to have a device for dropping sea mines and torpedoes.

At that time in TsAGI designing new aircraft engaged a group of ASSC. She led Tupolev. In October, the Red Army received a future project ANT-4 (TB-1). The aircraft was an all-metal, cantilever, a twin-engine monoplane with a shell of the corrugations. The design consists of a truss, which, in turn, are made of steel and duralumin tube. They take up most of the load. Casing corrugation provides rigidity and torsional strength.

Engineers calculated that the ANT-4 the presence of two engines "Bristol Jupiter" with a capacity of 400 hp able to cover the distance at a speed of 190 km / h, to have a zone of influence km 750 1, and the ability to carry a mine in 960 kg.

Tupolev TB-1

Projecting the aircraft was carried out very carefully and without any changes. Originally, to increase the rigidity of the cross section of the fuselage had to be triangular, as ANT and ANT-2-3. But researchers from TsAGI concluded that this design will lead to the considerable aerodynamic drag, which in turn pulls a deterioration in flight performance. Therefore, logical solution was to create a cross-section tapering down trapezoid.

According to the technological requirements of the plane divided into units. It includes three sections of the fuselage. Carried out integrally with the center-middle part, mnogolonzheronnoe wing had rarely spaced ribs. Gradually decreasing lining attaches easily stringers. The main landing gear made in the form of triangular pyramids so that the bottom of the fuselage remained free. This solves the problem with hanging or mounting place torpedoes or mines. Cords amortized rack. Crutch standard were placed in the tail.

2 engine "Lion" front wing mounted on the stern. Oil and water cooled in cylindrical radiators. Fuel tanks located in the wing and fuselage. For motors gravity it comes from consumable tanks and fed them with the help of a hand pump. Especially for TB-1 TsAGI engineered wood screws diameter 3,15 m.

In 1925, at the beginning of August, the bomber was completely ready, and at the end of August, an event was held to receive the aircraft by the Ostechbyuro commission. On November 26 of the same year, the first flight of the aircraft took place. After that, the plane was sent for state tests, which were conducted from June 42 to July 196,5. After XNUMX hours of active flight, it was decided to fine-tune some of the units. After them, the plane reached its maximum speed - XNUMX km / h.

Second ANT-4 ordered the Air Force. Application signed in July. According to the documents, it was called LZ-2LD (light bomber with two Lorraine-Dietrich engines). The same air car decided to assign the base model for the series production. It was planned to start production in a year and a half, but engineers were concerned about the power plant issue. The Lorraine-Dietrich engines were cheap, but the quality was in line with them. Using a lot of oil and fuel, they created strong vibrations throughout the fuselage. In April 1927, representatives of STC offered to install German motors BMWVI on the aircraft.

Tupolev TB-1

In 1927 year TsAGI officials presented the project in the sketch, and on September 22 military approved it. Future bomber, it was decided to name TB-12BMV6, it is also referred to as the TE1-25MVVI. A little later it was designated TB-1. New engines were more powerful because of it they consumed more fuel. Especially for this reason, we set the tank capacity 10 1650 kg. In addition pnevmopuska bomber supplied with a manual start.

Aircraft could operate in two ways. Accordingly, there were two pilots. One of them was a staff pilot, and a second assistant. The TB-1 placed five people, each of whom carried a number of additional functions. Navigator-bombardier could be the navigator, radio operator or photographer. The assistant pilot may perform the functions of the middle arrow, crew commander and served as fodder arrow. Remained unchanged pilot and bow gunner.

By arming treated three turrets, which were paired machine guns "Lewis» (7,62 mm). Location turrets was uneven, one on the nose edge on two tail. Ammunition - 12 drives. Planned installation of another turret, but abandoned this idea. In normal layout bomber can carry bombs 730 kg, while the maximum - 985 kg. They were placed in Der-9 inside and the outside of the sling. Reset using Reset-8 mechanism. bombs targeting was carried out using "Hertz F1110» optical sight.

Soviet Air Force placed an order for more than 200 copies of the aircraft. By decision of the leadership of the country had to be retrofitted Red Army Air Force bombers of Soviet production. Total built their machines 218, 66 of them equipped with floats TB 1P. These planes due to the rapidly growing production of new members of this class are outdated and either written off or sent to flight school to train new pilots.

By the year 1940 TB-1 28 there are only machines.

TB-1 characteristics:

Modification   TB-1
Wingspan, m   28.70
Length m   18.00
Height, m  
Wing area, m2   120.00
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   4520
  normal takeoff   6810
engine's type   2 PD M-17
Power, hp   X 2 680
Maximum speed km / h   207
Cruising speed, km / h   178
Practical range, km   1000
The maximum rate of climb, m / min   170
Practical ceiling, m   4830
Crew   6
Armament:   Six 7.62-mm machine guns PV-1
  bomb load - 1000 kg