Emergency landing of the aircraft on the water
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Emergency landing of the aircraft on the water

Emergency landing of the aircraft on the water

 

The successful implementation of ditching depends mainly on the following factors:

From the state of the sea and the strength of the wind; From the type of aircraft; From the mastery of the commander. The behavior of the aircraft at the time of landing may vary depending on the state of the sea. The landing of an aircraft parallel to the line of the crest of the swell, i.e., perpendicular to the direction of its movement, sometimes almost does not differ from landing the aircraft on a smooth water surface. When landing the aircraft perpendicularly to the line of the crest of the swell, or when landing on the stormy sea, large overloads are applied to the aircraft. By choosing the correct approach course, in accordance with the state of the sea, the commander can to a certain extent reduce the danger associated with landing the aircraft in a stormy sea.

The second factor influencing the successful implementation of an emergency landing on the water, is the type of aircraft. The commander can not have a direct influence on this factor, however, knowing the characteristics of its aircraft and its data, and the estimated his behavior when landing on the water, it can take some steps to ease the effect of his negative qualities and maximize its positive properties. Beforehand, you can always find data on the behavior of a particular type of aircraft landing on water.

The following are general data relating to all types of passenger aircraft.

The heavier the plane the better it is adapted to fit in the water. Modern passenger aircraft are usually satisfactory performance in terms of their fitness for ditching. At the bottom of passenger aircraft fuselage, which is often damaged when landing on water, it has great strength.

Speakers of the aircraft differently affect the damage to the aircraft during landing it on the water. The chassis must always be clean, because otherwise the plane will undergo dramatic rolls and overloads that can cause damage to the wing.

When planting in the turbulent surface of the water against the direction of the swell should expect significant congestion. The path length in this case depends on whether the plane of bounce on impact with the water wave or not.

The most safe landing of the plane in a turbulent sea is landing in a direction parallel to the line swell, or, in other words, in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the swell. Landing conditions in this case most conditions approaching landing on a smooth surface.

Of the three factors that affect the successful execution of a forced landing bench passenger aircraft on water, namely the state of the sea, and the type of aircraft

the art of flying, the last factor is the most crucial. From the ability of the commander and co-pilot to land the plane safely on the water will largely depend on the fate of the crew and passengers.

On most modern aircraft to land on the water must be at the lowest possible airspeed, provided, however, that this does not entail excessive scoring the nose of the aircraft.

After the first impact with the water, the aircraft commander, in most cases, almost can not fly a plane because he stopped listening to the rudders.

Landing on the smooth surface of the sea, including the presence of swell, should be made with caution, because in these conditions it is very difficult to determine the height of the water, so that the pilot can easily make a mistake. So if there is a possibility, the pilot must first pass at low altitude over the intended landing spot, dropping into the sea any small objects on which he will be able to determine the height and land on the second call.

Scale to determine the wind speed at the surface of the sea with the wind waves.

 

ASSESSMENT OF FITNESS PRIVATE water space for planting. An emergency landing at the river

The most convenient for ditching are closed basins, such as lakes, rivers, harbors, bays or stretches of water, surrounded by several islands.

If conditions permit, you must fly over the planned landing site to ensure there are no obstructions in the water:

  • pitfalls; boats, rafts;
  • buoys, piles or any other objects that could damage the plane.

Once the pilot is satisfied that on the surface there are no obstacles for landing, he must choose a course of approach, taking into account the actual state of the water surface and wind direction.

Water space selected for planting should be at least 1,5 km p 90 m length and width.

Direction for approach should be chosen taking into account the wind direction, the direction of the flow of the river and its depth. If the flow of the river is not very strong, and the wind direction does not coincide with the most favorable approach approach direction, then the landing should be performed upwind. If the direction of the flow of the river and the direction of the wind coincide, then the landing should be done against the wind and against the current. 

If the direction of the current and the direction of the wind are opposite, then the landing should be against the wind. -

The general rule when landing on the surface of the river is the following: if the wind is strong enough to be weak over £ neglected river and to land into the wind. Planting should be calculated so that at the end of the path of the water to be close to the beach, mooring, or aground.

In order to determine the amount of air and the direction of the principal, the largest swells of the sea, you must fly at an altitude of about 600 m (low-altitude primary swell is not always visible). The direction of movement of the weaker systems swell and wind waves is determined by the height of strafing. ^

The vast majority of ocean waves have a height of 3-4 m, and waves of height 7-8 m are rare. Due to interference, or the imposition of waves, waves that follow one another can differ sharply in height. This can be clearly seen by watching the waves crashing against the shore. Three or four large waves are followed by a series of relatively small waves, after which large waves again come, and so on. Thus, even in the case of a very troubled sea, there are always places on its surface that are relatively quieter, which is very important for the commander and the second Pilot in case of emergency landing.

If it is necessary to land at sea with complicated waves, i.e., if there are several different swell systems, then for planting should choose a course that the plane was not moving directly toward any of the systems to swell and thus make the most of a headwind.

When choosing a course of planting is necessary to consider also the location of the entrance doors and escape hatches in the plane. When placing the door on one side of the fuselage of the aircraft (Tu-104, Tu-124, IL-18 and so on. N.) Parallel to the crest of the swell landing should be made so as to swell (wind or wave) incident on the starboard side.

In this case, for the evacuation of passengers and crew members on inflatable life rafts can be used doors and escape hatches left side.

For Tu-114, IL-62, Tu-154, Tu-134 and so on. N., With exits on both sides of the fuselage, landing on the water parallel to the crest of the swell does not matter which side of the fuselage is incident swell or wind wave, but after the water landing the pilot is required to assess the position of the aircraft on the water and the ability to open doors and hatches so that no water could get inside the aircraft.

 

TECHNOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE ORDER ditching RESCUE AND APPLICATION OF FUNDS

Emergency landing of passenger aircraft to land on the turbulent surface of the sea should be carried out so that when the water touches the nose was raised. To do this, you must make a normal approach with flaps and landing gear retracted. Engines must operate at low speed. At an altitude of about 1,5-2 m above the water level the plane and holding his nose slightly raised, continue to fly to the intended point of landing on water at a speed exceeding the critical on 15-20 km / h.

Having reached the selected landing site should slightly reduce the gas and lift up the nose so as not to completely lose speed. Although at the time of landing the nose must be kept in a raised

position during the run should be omitted, since the aircraft nose lowered quickly stopped because the increased surface of the plane, in contact with water; the aircraft will break away from the waves at a lower angle of attack, so that will gain less than the height. To keep the nose during the run in position, the pilot has to respond quickly to any change in position of the aircraft, acting elevator.

The length of the path of the aircraft during landing is directly dependent on the weight of the aircraft and its speed, or in other words, from its stock of kinetic energy at the time of landing.

When landing on the water at night at an altitude of 100-150 m need to turn on the lights and all the attention focused on the definition of the height of the beginning of the alignment of the aircraft before splashdown, preventing its impact on the water or loss of speed. In the fog and clouds lights include not recommended.

The moonlit night must sit in the direction of the moon. It was found that the assessment of the state of the sea, the observations made by the full moon, is about right. However, in these conditions, the sea 'is easily visible in only one direction, the sea seems quieter than it actually is. However, you can almost always determine the root system of swell and wind direction, if it is sufficiently large force and the sea are wind bands.

Launching inflatable liferafts and planting of people

As soon as the plane finally stopped on the water after landing, the captain must:

  • assess the position of the aircraft on the water board and the possibility of opening doors and escape hatches, so that the water could not get inside the aircraft;
  • give the command to open the doors and escape hatches;
  • give the command to lower rafts into the water;
  • avoid crowding of passengers in one place to avoid dangerous trims on the nose or tail of the aircraft;
  • organize rapid disembarkation of passengers with pre-wearing lifejackets;
  • last to leave the plane, stay with emergency rescue helots radio and direct rescue of passengers;
  • instruct take rafts from the aircraft on 50-100 m.

On most modern passenger aircraft mount inside the aircraft rafts and rafts are given hand is brought to the doors and hatches, which lie above the level of the seawater, and which is most advisable to open a specific environment, and then pull the rafts into the water without sinking plane seawater.

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Notes. 1. The water level of aircraft grade necessary to define those doors and hatches, opening them to have windows, windows and doors and hatches to choose, the lower edge of which lies above the level of the seawater oxen or the upper crest of the wave.

Notes  2. When heavy seas and storm should be opened mainly escape hatches above the wing with a more secure leeward. In storm when large waves can be used for emergency escape hatches at the top of the aircraft fuselage (on the aircraft, where such hatches are available). It is necessary to take into account the greater difficulty and exit landing rafts through these hatches.

Having received the command to launch the rafts into the water, the crew members and the flight attendants, provided for in advance by the schedule, or plan, for emergency evacuation on the water, open the appropriate doors and hatches based on the situation and, previously attaching to a special bracket at the door or hatch end starting painter (rope), laid in a special pocket of the packaging of the raft, the raft thrown in the water.

Notes. 1. Rafts, Falin not attached to the aircraft and dropped into the water, can include wind and current on the aircraft for hundreds of meters, and people can not swim to the raft and take advantage of them in order to save on water.

Notes  2. If the raft (for whatever reason) is not attached to the attachment at the door or hatch, the end of the start-up painter must hold fast in the hands of a member of the crew (flight attendant), governing the exit landing on rafts or physically strong passenger who brought the crew to assist in evacuation.

After packing the raft dumped into water and swims, it remains open and inflate the raft package. For this painter from within the launcher is connected to the exhaust packaging and rope starter gas cylinder mounted on a raft.

The length of the start-up painter raft always is several times the height of the lower edge of the door (hatch) from the water level and, therefore, you must first pick up the slack painter. When the slack will be selected and will tighten VGTU painter from within, it is necessary several times to pull the painter from within sharply. After a few runs, the disclosure package and triggering the starting device in inflatable raft chamber begins to flow from the carbon dioxide cylinder and a raft inflates in a few tens of seconds. Once rise inflatable arch (or B-pillar), supporting the awning, the raft is ready to receive fleeing.

Falin firmly connected to the raft, and will keep him at the plane as long as fleeing not produce land and cut the painter from within. The strength of the painter in the gap (40-4-60 to r) is designed in such a way that if people do not have time to cut the painter from within and sinking aircraft will drag the raft painter from within terminates. The raft full of people remain afloat. However it is better to avoid such a situation and we must strive to move away from the aircraft prior to its flooding to avoid the funnel formed by immersing the plane in the water.

M and P e and h e. In case of an emergency landing on land in the desert, taiga, the Arctic, a sparsely populated area at any time of the year, inflatable rafts can be used on land to protect people from rain, sun, wind and cold to approach rescue teams. In this case, the emergency power supply and equipment designed for inflatable liferafts should be used in relation to the concrete situation.

In the inflatable raft, which is afloat and held by the Fahlan at the exit or hatch above the wing, the rescued can get directly from the aircraft through an open door or hatch, and from the wing that people exit through the emergency escape hatches in the passenger cabin. If this "dry" way is impossible to apply in the current situation, you should jump into the water with your feet down with the inflated waistcoat, swim up to the raft and climb into it on the inflatable or soft tape ladder through one of the two entrance apertures in the tent of the raft. It should be taken into account that people in dry clothes are more resilient in the conditions of staying on inflatable life rafts. Therefore, whenever possible, avoid getting wet clothes when boarding the rafts of passengers and crew.

In some cases (when there is little time) have inflated rafts jumping into the water. When the deployment and inflation of life rafts necessary to pay special attention to the fact that the rafts and fleeing people came to the sharp edges of the fuselage and other parts of the aircraft.

Helping the wounded to leave the plane, you should always take the plane with their rescue equipment (vest).

When landing on rafts from the wing of the aircraft must be remembered that to stay on the wing, with waves of the sea is extremely difficult (can wash wave). It is therefore necessary to use a lifeline attached at the hatch above the wing, to keep people on the wing to deploy an inflatable raft at the edge of the wing.

When filling the first and subsequent rafts passengers if rafts descend from one output (hatch) one by one painter from within first liferaft is disconnected from the aircraft and attached to the second raft.

Then, the first raft is pushed from the exit (hatch) aircraft, in order not to interfere with the landing of people a second, third, and so on. D. Rafts.

After the landing, all rafts sequentially bonded together Falin long 8-10 m discharged from the aircraft at 50-100 At, not to fall into the hopper of the sinking aircraft. To do this, people on the last raft, which is attached to the mooring painter exit (hatch) after the raft sit the crew commander, verify that all the people have left the aircraft, cast off rafts painter from within and away from the plane under the influence of wind, waves, currents.

The commander takes over the general management of the rafts, making sure that all people are picked up from the water, all rafts are tied together with falins 8-10 m long, and all the necessary equipment is on the rafts. I

If possible, the crew commander must go to the raft where the radio operator with emergency radio.

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If the airplane continues to float, the rafts must remain near the aircraft at a distance of 50-100 meters to rescue ships, planes and helicopters could find them faster.

Guide life raft, filled with passengers, carries a senior crew member, who is on a raft. If the raft no member of the crew (flight attendant), the older passengers choose from among themselves.

In order to get closer to another liferaft, you need to throw the sea anchor the raft the entire length of the painter (pitches) in the direction of another raft, and then pull up for the painter from within his raft towards the sea anchor and thrown out. If the distance between large rafts, throwing drogue have repeatedly. If the raft has two anchors, it is better to use both drogue (one entry) to bring together liferafts. After the convergence necessary to connect rafts Falin (ropes), laid on the bottom of the raft.

The distance between the union of the flesh should be at least 8-10 m, and if the sea is restless - 10-12 m. After the union of the flesh should be released into the water all the drogue to flesh carried away by the wind of the place splashdown aircraft, as this place will be approximate search and rescue aircraft, ships, and so on. d.

In order to eliminate gas leakage from a damaged buoyancy chambers of the raft, with a large gap, use a metal cap, and with a small puncture - the rubber stopper. Using the cover, you should push the bottom plate covers over the gap in the chamber of the raft, cover the upper plate, tighten the wing nut and broken wires securing the nut to the plates.

Using a rubber stopper, you need to screw it into the hole (puncture, a small gap), then as soon as possible to prepare a patch from the package with equipment to repair the raft to replace corks and stoppers.

It is necessary to close the entrance curtain raft when all saved people were placed on a raft. Keep the curtains closed raft in cold or wet weather. Brief guide with explanatory drawings placed 'on the inner surface of the canopy raft. Text similar to the following:

Immediate action in cold weather.

  • a) untie the pins (ties) that pull the entrance curtains into bundles;
  • b) Raise the entrance curtains by pulling the cords down. After that, fix the curtains with loops on the toggles (oblong buttons);
  • c) from time to time, in order to avoid poisoning with carbon dioxide exhaled by people, ventilate the space under the awning by slightly opening the entrance curtains;
  • d) inflate the bottom of the raft. The inflator pump or bellows are stored in the raft repair equipment package. In order to inflate the bottom with a pump, it is necessary to attach a hose to the pump hole farthest from the handle. "

 

 

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