Yakovlev Yak-12


Yak-12 - light multi-purpose transport vehicle, was created in the design bureau under the management of A.S. Yakovleva. The new aircraft was tested in 1946 year. Almost immediately began mass production. The main version of the Yak-12 has good flight data for its class of vehicles. The aircraft had radio stations and instruments that provided the ability to fly in difficult weather conditions and at night. The modified Yak-12M was produced in Poland and had the designation PZL-101 Gawron. Most of these planes are still in use, many of them have been used in civil aviation and flight schools.


History of the Yak-12


AS Yakovlev and his assistants immediately after the war worked on the light air multi-purpose machines. The designers wanted to create a simple, cheap and unpretentious in operation plane that would be used for the transportation of mail, goods and passengers on short local lines, aero - to teach skydiving and towing plan as medical, plant nutrition fertilizer for aerial sowing, pollination of greenery.

Yak-12 video

In 1946, the aircraft has passed the test. Among several options, the most successful was the car with the motor in the AI-14 240 hp


In terms of development and reconstruction of the national economy in 1940-ies. said: "To develop and restore the local airlines, to develop mass ... special use aircraft for pest control with / x, the sanitary service of the population ..." This was the reason for the development of a new aircraft that would replace at-2.


According to the Yak-12 scheme, a bogie high-wing with a podkosno-raschalochnym tail and a non-retractable landing gear. Its double-lined wooden wing, which has a liner trim, is equipped with a fixed slat and slat type flaps. Metal frame, plumage trimmed with linen. The farm is the basis of the fuselage. It is welded from steel pipes. Sheathing in the tail part linen (on the wooden formwork), in the bow - duralumin. Cab of car type, four-seater. If necessary, a special stretcher can be installed on the right to transport the patient. On the first aircraft, the engine in 160 hp is installed. And cooling with M-11FP-1.

Yak-12 types

Over the years, the scheme design and characteristics of the aircraft is constantly changing. First, it uses a mixed scheme with the gradual replacement of wood aluminum. Remained unchanged linen-covered aircraft.

Yak-12 video


Yak-12 in its original form was a two-seater and was intended for the Air Force as sanitary and connected. Fuselage truss consisting of hromansilevyh pipes, wooden slats were formwork, mixed structure, wooden frame dvuhlonzheronnoe wing frame tail and ailerons dyuralyuminevy. V-shaped wings of the wing, which converged at the junctions of the landing gear. The fixed duralumin underwing, on the consoles of the wing of the constant chord, provided a greater angle of attack. Chassis of the pyramidal type, in which a ribbon-braid was introduced, which helps to reduce the resistance. The main brake wheels 600x180 mm, and the tail wheel, respectively, 200x110 mm. Wire control cable. You can install skis.

Wing - 23,86 m2 equipped with slats that can improve the quality of planting and improve the safety of the pilot.

Yak-12 flight

The basic version has good data for the class of machines. The speed - up to 220 kilometers per hour, with landing - 90 km per hour, the ceiling - 4500 m. Range of 760 km. Empty 1 plane weighs a ton. Acceptable (normal) take-off weight of 1450 kg. Yak-12 equipped with radio equipment and which allow to fly in bad weather and at night.


Modifications of the Yak-12

  • Yak-12S - sanitary plane is designed for one patient.

  • Yak-12SKH - is agricultural aircraft for pollination, a chemical spray tank, located under the fuselage.

  • Yak-12R - related machine CAF and the Air Force. It has a more powerful engine - 260 hp (AI-14R). The opener is installed in the rear - brake hook, which is produced when boarding the primer to reduce mileage.

  • Yak-12A - machine tapered wing, with one strut and slats.

  • Yak-12M - aircraft designed for passenger 3, characterized by an elongated tail section, the new forkil and plumage.

Yak-12 cabin

Yak-12 characteristics:

Modification   Yak-12
Wingspan, m   12.00
Aircraft Length m   8.36
Height, m   3.76
Wing area, m2   21.60
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   830
  maximum take-off   1185
engine's type   1 PD M-11FR
Thrust, kN   X 1 160
Maximum speed km / h   194
Cruising speed, km / h   169
Practical range, km   810
Flight duration, h   4
Practical ceiling, m   3000
Crew   1
Payload:   2 passenger or 355 kg of cargo




After the war, Alexander Yakovlev, bearing in mind the success of the passenger AIR-6, started to create light multipurpose aircraft Yak-12 for the needs of the domestic civil aviation. The new machine was supposed to serve local airlines, carrying small cargo (up to 350 kg) or two passengers. The sanitary option provided transportation of the patient on stretchers, accompanied by a medical officer. The Yak-12XX modification, designed for operation in rural areas of the country, was equipped with special devices for treating fields from the air. Aeroclubs used the aircraft as a towing vehicle and for dropping paratroopers.
Big problems with the developers did not arise, but it was a case where the Yak-12 almost "summed up under the monastery" its designer. The pilot was unable to land on 50-area provided personally IV Stalin. The problem was not in the car, but production was stopped. Only after the death of the leader of the An-12 program was restored. In addition to the USSR, the aircraft was manufactured in Poland and China. Licensed Polish version of the machine was named PZL-101 Gawron.
Many of the "twelve" continue to fly while remaining one of the most popular aircraft among collectors aircraft. The cost of the rare Yak-12 or "Gawron" comparable to the price of new cars or FordFocus Pegout 3008.

Yak-12 probably the first car Yakovlev, which is designed for civilian use. Despite the fact that he began to be made at the end of 40-ies of the last century, and it is used at the moment. My friend and now earns money with this machine. It uses the Yak-12 as the plane for skydiving. With ego words I can say that he is satisfied the aircraft, only drawback is the cost of fuel and it is now quite difficult to find spare parts.


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