Yakovlev Yak-2


Yak-2 - Soviet bomber reconnaissance type. Total released 111 copies. For the first time the aircraft seen on AMC Frunze in February 1939 years. Already one species, it was clear that the aircraft developed in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. This is designated "aircraft 22». Factory tests appointed engaged Yu Piontkovsky. Its the same in the future, was appointed chief pilot Yakovlev. The chief engineer of the project became E. Adler.

Before 1938 years engineers from OKB engaged exclusively in small-engine aircraft type, but L. Schechter proposed to start development of the twin-engine multi-purpose aircraft. He calculated that the aircraft will have a maximum speed of flight.


According to the preliminary design wing area equal 27m2To give a considerable load on the wing. To reduce the weight of the structure decided to make a one-piece wing of solid wood, and steel pipes to make the fuselage. Quite interesting is the fact that in order to reduce drag vodoradiatory placed at the rear of the engine nacelles. Therefore, the navigator built into the contour of the fuselage. Opening fire from a machine gun to be possible only in the case of a partial opening of the lamp and lower fairing. Thanks to the many above completions engineers expect to receive a great rate - 600 km / h.

Arm reconnaissance bomber planned to a minimum. The total weight should not exceed 350 kg. It is also planned to install a camera and make a small bomb bay for lighting charges. Air machine was supposed to be a double. The navigator arrow was supposed to be at the center of the fuselage in a separate cabin.

The plane had planned to run in three versions: a fighter, scout bomber. Accordingly, the equipment and weapons they should be different. In mid-autumn 1938 years were drawn more or less clear picture of future aircraft. The fighter has been decided to install cannons. To him we decided to include two ventral cannon and machine gun 3 ShKAS, and the crew was reduced to one person.


Middle scout must have 8 20 kg caliber bombs located in the fuselage compartment, and two machine guns ShKAS, one fixed and one movable. Under radio "Dvina" gas tank placed behind fuselage aerial camera AFA-19. In the rear cabin provided a special "couch" with a porthole in the floor. At the same time, the bomber is not staffed radio and photographic equipment. It refers to the long-range bombers, so the supply of fuel is increased, and among the weapons particularly marked 6 100-kilogram high-explosive bombs. They are hung vertically.

According to the plan all variants of the aircraft had to have four wing tank capacity.

In January 1939, the "22" aircraft entered the airfield. He was without weapons and photographic equipment. Literally, the first flight demonstrated the high speed of the aircraft - 500 km / h. But defects were also noticed. For example, the power plant was malfunctioning. The oil often overheated, like water, depending on the mode of flight. According to plans, the plane was to gain altitude in 7000 m for 8,7 minutes, but in fact, the set was four times more. He often took a break in the air, in order for the engine to cool down. And during the landing, the brake discs were overheated. After every 5 of flights, the wheel tires had to be changed.

It was decided to give preference to long-range bomber reconnaissance type. Some highlights designed again. The height of the fuselage in the cockpit of the navigator climbed 80 mm. Accordingly, the back of the aircraft became more sloping. Gargrot not add up, so we had to come up with new ways to use the angles of firing a rifle point located above. In January 40 years gathered together a special commission with the Air Force, which is to inspect and approve the draft.

Yak-2 cabin

In a number of shock weapons we decided to use the bomb bomb FAB 2-50 or the same FAB-100. In some embodiments, slipped fragmentation bombs AB and AO-8-10 20 in the number of pieces. On the outside of the suspension under the wing of the castle were two D2-MA for additional FAB or FAB-50-100. For the management of all the bombs he posted navigator because of his compartment were all the necessary controls, including optical sight OPB-1, electric ejector ESBR-3p and mechanical WM-8.

In testing the first production BB-22 1940 hit in March year. As a result of poor production machine significantly lowered its flight characteristics. The maximum speed has dropped to 515 km / h. The production model looked not just unfinished and crude. Across the fuselage were a lot of gaps, many fasteners poorly maintained the whole structure.

In general, the plane lost interest in itself, but with the advent of the Pe-2-22 BB altogether forgotten.

In its original form it had to be more powerful, fast and practical.

The design of the Yak-2

To increase the zone of fire empennage made two-keel. Himself fin and horizontal tail were solid wood. Handlebars rotation and height duralumin. Sheathing linen. Steering rotation was carried out by a cable, and the elevator - aileron. Tricycle landing gear in flight is able to get out. This process is carried out thanks to the electrically operated hydraulic pump. Braking pneumatic wheels.

Fuel placed in six tanks, two of which are located in the fuselage behind the cockpit, and four - in between the wing spars. For each identified by its own engine oil system. It is mounted in the nacelle. For cooling the answers at the bottom of the gondola oil cooler. Radiator Cooling water was placed in the tail section. Cold air intake through side tunnels and fissures, and discharge occurs through the tail of the nacelle and adjustable louvers.

The plane is very promising, and in many respects, including speed, was the first in the world for this class. Though it and overtook Pe-2, yet the aircraft became the basis for new, more advanced type of long-range bombers.

Yak-2 characteristics:

Modification   Yak-2
Wingspan, m   14.00
Length m   9.34
Height, m  
Wing area, m2   29.40
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   4000
  normal takeoff   5380
engine's type   2 PD M-103
Power, hp   X 2 960
Maximum speed km / h   515
Cruising speed, km / h  
Practical range, km   800
Rate of climb, m / min   650
Practical ceiling, m   8900
Crew   2-3
Armament:   one 7.62-mm ShKAS machine gun
  up to 900 kg bombs



I admire all projects and planes Yakovlev Design Bureau. I like to get acquainted with more detailed and interesting facts from the activities of this KB and their projects. Of course among all the planes I have my favorites, so is the Yak-2 at the expense of the history of the design ego itself and for the final result. Despite the fact that it is quite old, it is distinguished by its huge combat power, as for an aircraft of those years. Even a small series was able to do quite a lot of work in military operations. The greatest advantage of this bomber was a long range of flight, which was far from unimportant in the bombing of suitable enemy forces. Speaking about the combat load, I completely agree with Paul, who noted that this is really a "bombomonstr". He could cover a large area with powerful bombs, which led to the destruction of technology and manpower. And in general our designers are really good fellows I admire people who can create something new and very high quality.

A young, ambitious designer A. Yakovlev undertook the implementation of the newest, even unusual for him tasks. So it happened with the design on the threshold of the war of a high-speed bomber for solving modern problems for that time. Prior to that, the specific character of the design bureau was the development of light-engine aircraft. Creating a new car BB-2, the designers decided to focus on the truss fuselage made of steel pipes, inscribed in the contour of the navigator's cabin, and also on general small dimensions. It was also planned to install a powerful engine unit, which included 2 M-103 with water cooling (each engine by 960 hp). Armament was supposed to be easy enough. According to calculations, the range was up to 800 km, maximum 600 km / h in speed. Indicators worthy of a fighter.
Beautifully looked only on paper. And in fact it requires increased bomb load, summed motors with a new type radiator. The relatively small size of the Yak-2 constructions are not allowed to carry out effective change and the more profound modernization. Snowball design and manufacturing flaws simply crushed an interesting idea. Quite different was the fate of the aircraft, if in the Yak-2 spotted near the scout.

This powerful and formidable unit on the right to be awarded the highest mark since at that time they had a high level of combat power. Most importantly, due to the two engines was more firmly established it. Unfortunately they were released significantly less than originally planned. I think that more widespread use of the ego could be even faster lead to fracture of the war in our favor. It's bombomonstr that could overcome a long distance with a considerable margin of bombs on board.


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