Yakovlev Yak-28


Yak-28 is a Soviet multi-purpose jet military aircraft, codified in NATO as the "Brewer". "Twenty-eighth" made its first flight back in early March 1958. Produced with the use of many possible modifications, in particular as a bomber, fighter, reconnaissance aircraft, training airplane or EW aircraft. It was designed thanks to the previously created Yak-26, which became the base model. Yak-28 could become a carrier of nuclear weapons. It is he who is the first large-scale front-line supersonic bomber in the USSR. It was released more than 10 years, and production ended only in 1971 year. For all history, 1180 aircraft were built, and the most common modification was Yak-28P.

The operation period of the aircraft

For the first time the finished serial Yak-28B was demonstrated at the air show in Tushino in 1961 year. The aircraft had been distributed throughout the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic and the Western Group of Forces. In parts of reconnaissance aviation, air defense and fighter-bomber squadrons of Yak-28 1992 year it was up. Ukrainian Air Force used it to 1994 years.


Although the model of this aircraft and was one of the most numerous, it still was not officially accepted the aircraft for the Air Force. The fact that one of the demonstration flight incident happened: the plane, leaving the supersonic, broke into pieces.

In April 66 year Yak-28 captain and lieutenant Boris Kapustin Yu Yanov had accomplished the feat. When flying on a plane to West Berlin began the problem and refused motors. At the cost of his own life pilots took the plane to the side than a lot of people saved. He was posthumously awarded them the Order of the Red Banner.

Ninth November 1975, the Yak-28B of 668-th BAP participated in the interception of IBS "watchdog". The order came after the team showed armed insubordination.

In a modification of the intelligence Yak-28 participated in the Afghan war.


In operation, the air car was quite complicated. Even in the absence of automation, the Yak-28 was largely rejected. Even before the state tests, the critical capabilities of the aircraft, including the corkscrew, and complicated aerobatics were clearly stipulated. Non-synchronous ignition and periodic self-shutdown afterburner set certain limits, so it was allowed to take off only on the formless maximum engine mode (MBFR). During the forcing of the afterburner for the take-off period, there began a variety of events, which led to a catastrophe.

To protect against this situation on a plane AK-established 2A - a system of automatic exchange. She rejected the rudder when there raznotyag engines. So she retorted, turning the unit to the direction of the failed engine. But from a practical point of view, this machine was extremely unreliable to use. Because he had many accidents.


Also for the aircraft developed a powerful hydraulic flaps, because the previous one was not strong enough. As a result, one of the flaps on landing could simply release not until the end.

Yet the aircraft enjoyed great respect among the pilots because it has a high thrust-weight ratio. He could not produce weapons off almost vertically.

Also, the fuselage was very weak. The structure was designed so that at full load the fuselage begins to deform, whereby the lamp can not be closed until the end. First, we had the pilot plant with the navigator, and only then carry out refueling and weapons.

The design of the Yak-28

The aircraft is designed as a cantilever high swept empennage and wings. Bicycle gear with the front and rear racks ventral and two additional supporting struts at the wingtips.

The basis of the power plant consisted of two Turbojet R11AF-300, which were previously installed on the MiG-21. This modified engines, they were later renamed R11AF2-300. They were placed in nacelles under the wings. Fuel tanks together in (6 pieces). In addition, two more were suspended.


Among the equipment highlights installed radar "initiative-2», autopilot AP-28K1, advanced bomb optical sight OPB-116. In the reconnaissance version installed WLAN "Bulat" side-on view. Some specimens were equipped with radio range-finder station "Lotus" (DBS-2S) and radio navigation RSBN-2 «Code». The modified Yak-28, which supply various interference equip stations "beans", "Lilac-PN" and "Bouquet".

For the reconnaissance aircraft of the proposed system by type of AFA. During the night of shooting using the camera on-YA7 and 2 flash SDA-2.

Almost all of the options, except the interceptor had a location in front of the navigator pilot. Its cabin has been glassed. The Yak-28P navigator and pilot stationed with each other, the lantern was also common. To enhance the security established 5MN K and K-7MN - ejection seats.


From the weapons used gun HP-23 (in future replaced by GSH-23), ammunition - 50 shells. The bombs were placed in gruzootseke fuselage, because of what he could carry almost any type of bombs (including nuclear weapons) up to 1500 kg.

Armament interceptors radically different. They had no bombs, no guns, but armed with missiles R-8M-1 class "air-to-air", having semi-active guidance system and radar sight "Eagle-D." Then, for better efficiency missiles have been replaced by P-3S.

Modifications of the Yak-28

  1. Yak-28 - basic production version of Sukhoi.

  2. Yak-28B - bomber variant with system of "Lotus" and "Initiative".

  3. Yak-28BI - air unit used for terrain mapping. Available radar "Bulat".

  4. Yak-28L - modified bomber with distance-guidance system "Lotus" DBS-2S.

  5. Yak-28I - in the presence of an integrated weapon control system: OPB-116, AP-28K and radar "initiative-2».

  6. Yak-28N - available weapon system K-28P (2 anti-radar missiles X-28).

  7. Yak-28R - unarmed reconnaissance aircraft.

  8. Yak-28RR - radiation reconnaissance.

  9. Yak-28P - Fighter.

  10. Yak-28PP - used for electronic warfare.

  11. Yak-28U - was used as a school.

  12. Yak-129 - the first airplane pilot plan.

Yak-28 cabin

Yak-28 was in service with the Soviet Union, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Turkmenistan.

Yak-28 characteristics:

Modification   Yak-28
Wingspan, m   11.78
Length m   20.02
Height, m   4.3
Wing area, m2   35.25
Weight, kg  
  normal takeoff   16160
  maximum take-off   18080
engine's type   2 TRD Р11АФ2-300
Link unforced, kgf   X 2 6100
Maximum speed km / h   1850
Practical range, km   2070
The duration of the flight, ch.min   2.20
Practical ceiling, m   14500
Crew   2
Armament:   the original gun HP-23 caliber 23 mm with ammunition 50 cartridges, in the future - double-barreled 23-mm gun GSH-23Ya.
  Yak-28B: bomb caliber from 100 to 3000 kg in the internal bomb bay; normal bomb load - 1200 kg, maximum - 3000 kg;


Yak-28 video


La "cervecera" yak 28, un jet con unas peculiaridades .... únicas tal vez por su diseño ..... fue bombandero, el primero supersónico .... con buena autonomía, en vuelo a baja altura .... muy estable, siempre que no superase machc 1, sin embargo la precisión en ataque era mediocre tal vez debido a NO contar con muchas ayudas electrolíticas y de guiado obticas, la versión de reconocimiento fotográfico (diurno y nocturnéx) fue plataforma para tal fin, rusa, sirvió en dos conflictos frontera China y Afganistán, en este caso, inclusive lidio contra cazas paquistaníes f16 e iraníes F14 evadiensose siempre entre los Vallés sin sufrir NINGUNA baja carto sin derribo, derribo ... todas las carreteras y veredas de Afganistán, controlo las rutas, tanto de día como de noche de los muyadines ..... apuntó objetivos importantes (centros de mandó y de abastecimiento de los guerrilleros).
Otra versión importante y exitosa fue, la de guerra electrónica, tenía capacidad (demostrada, en Europa central) para nublar y anular tanto al sistema misilistico antiaéreo Hank, como al nique Hércules de los EEUU, también el sistema terrier de los buques de guerra. ... las fuertes contramedidas y ruido ...... borraban de los radares inclusive de algunos cazas, las trazas de seguimiento, está versión estuvo en servicios de primera línea .... hasta la caída del muro en el 90 .. ..
La versión tal vez menos agraciada sin duda fue la de caza .... su existencia fue por ser la única plataforma que podía lávar y operar un equipo de radar de onda continúa y misiles radio dirigidos, los Annan con alcances de entre 12 y 28 km .... permitiendo la interceptación, en toda condición día y noche .... operó en Kazajistán, Ucrania, y en las bases del norte ártico, y zona de los países bálticos, participó en varías interceptaciones .... de globos sondas de la nato, y de algun que otro scrammbre, en baja altura y por debajo de mach 1, tenía buena maniobralidad, pero en altura y ha mayor velocidad era difícil de maniobrar con el, buena subida vertical y aceleración, un caza con un mantenimiento en tierra, ciertamente complicado, (todos sus controles eran hidráulicos asistidos, por dos circuitos y dos depósitos) y que no perdonaba los errores en su pilotaje, motores que en cierta altura y en ciertas maniobras no se alimentaban bien por la toma de aire y con ell o llegaba la parada, de uno o de los dos motores .... en aterrizaje también tenía sus peculiaridades por su tren de bicicleta y carencia de frenos aerodinámicos, asi como por la alta velocidad de toma (nunca por debajo de los 300 km / hora) ....... querido y respetado por muchos pilotos, odiado y temido por otros ..... esta máquina al igual que OTRAS .... las de despegues vtol o stoll, sólo pudieron ser diseñadas y puestas en operación, por esa oficina y ese gran ingeniero jefe que fue Alexander Yakolev .... sobre esta oficina siempre recayo los proyectos más complicados (incluso de helicópteros de carga .... de doble planta motriz y palas, yak 24) sin duda un genio .... que de haber tenido su of icina en otro país (occidental) ..... su fama hubiese sido ENORME.

UC 28 can not be called an entirely new plane. Initially, Yakovlev Design Bureau to develop and conduct the assembly of the new machine, equipping it with turbojet engines VC 11, which had increased pulling power, but in the future of their installation had to be abandoned in favor of a simplified engine TRTRT - 300.
In the middle of the 1950's tactical and technical requirements for the aircraft changed almost every six months, which contributed significantly to the achievements in engine .. So in the midst of the test Yak 26 was decided to begin the development and construction of its new light-based high-altitude supersonic bomber. The aircraft was equipped with two engines P - 11 - 300 design OKB Tumansky.
In the summer of 1956 years Yakovlev was assigned to develop a version of the aircraft under a very powerful engines VC 11, while significantly increased requirements - technical specifications of the new bomber. It was built 737 such aircraft. They are available in the following versions: tactical bomber, interceptor, reconnaissance, training - training aircraft. Serial production of Yak 28 1971 was completed in the year.

I believe that the Yak-28 a successful military aircraft due to excellent flight characteristics. The biggest advantage of this aircraft can rightly be considered the speed, the more the ego is designed and created to intercept enemy aircraft. Despite that the Yak-28 far as I know has not officially been in service with the Soviet Air Force, yet the ego is active and a large number produced.


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