Yakovlev Yak-6


Yak-6 - a direct participant in the Second World War, designed Yakovlev in 1942, the design was carried out in two versions: the bomber and transport. Designers have made emphasis on the most simple operation, low cost of production with minimal use of metal, which was in short supply during the war.


Most of the aircraft was built in the transport version. Behind the cockpit was located a compartment for six passengers or cargo. Reserve fuel 278 kg enough to 580 km flight. The Soviet Air Force Yak-6 nicknamed "Duglasenkom" because of the small size.


History of the Yak-6


The decision on the construction of a dedicated short-range night bomber was made 26.04.1942. Design and development of apparatus instructed Yakovlev.


Given the military situation in the country, the future development of the Yak-6 was accelerated. Already in July 1942, the first two instances were in partial readiness: transport was ready to 75%, bombing - at 25%. The experimental machine factory number 47 released in Orenburg. Factory tests of the transport Yak-6 lasted from August to September 1942 He was praised in terms of manageability and recommended for use.


The shortcomings on the apparatus were revealed a little, they were considered as inessential and immediately sent the car to Moscow for state tests. The State Commission of the USSR Air Force found much more errors in the operation of the transport Yak-6. According to the conclusion, the aircraft had insufficient longitudinal and transverse stability, the load on the control lever was extremely low, which prevented the pilot from assessing the situation in the air. At night it was impossible to operate the car, since the dashboard with the lighted indicators was reflected on the windshield of the cabin. Another disadvantage is the one-piece wing, which made operation difficult. During the state tests conducted 34 test flight.


Yak-6 was cheap to produce, easy to use, undemanding to fuel type. It can be used in the transport, cohesive, sanitary versions and variants of the night near the bomber.


It recommended for serial production after the following modifications:

  1. improving lateral stability;

  2. increasing the load on the steering units;

  3. improved forward vision during rulezhek and climb;

  4. introduction detachable wing;

  5. Cabin device for night flights.


Already at the first production aircraft finishing all successfully implemented.


Design Yak-6


Yak-6 is a cantilever monoplane low-wing solid wood construction. Bow, center and aft fuselage join hands together overhead steel nodes. The slots at the joints sealed with cloth tape.


The bow and the middle part of the fuselage monocoque made under the scheme. fuselage frame consists of pine frames, stringers, spars and plywood sheathing. Inside the middle of the passenger compartment was located, inside lined with plywood.


The passenger cabin, located in the middle part of the fuselage, was also from the inside lined with plywood. The tail was typical of the fabric covering.


Dvuhlonzheronnoe wing without connectors are attached to the fuselage. But for the convenience of transportation unit railway transport wingtips disconnected.


The wing is made of a standard profile of Clark-YH. Due to the increased thickness of the wing of the plane was characterized by high tactical flight characteristics and easy handling.


Slotted ailerons had wooden construction with fabric covering. In the center section spars placed fuel tanks, and in the rear - a boarding plate made of plywood.


The tail assembly solid wood, has a fabric covering. Stabilizer and fin dvuhlonzheronnoe. Wheels are equipped with swivel and height-trimmers.


Chassis tricycle, has a tail wheel. In the first instance of the main landing gear had been made clean, had cable runs and manual transmission.


Tests carried out on the Yak-6, showed that loss of speed when the landing gear is small - up to 20 km / h. But the reliability of non-retractable design was safer, so the next series got tight mounting racks, chassis casement niches were replaced with duralumin lid.


Supports telescopic landing gear, strut, with gas-liquid damping. The wheels are equipped with air brake chamber. Crutch has a locking mechanism, Swivel.


Airplane applied dual control cable runs. Issuing and retracting flaps were made using the helm, which was located between the pilots' seats. From it through the cable runs effort transferred to a special screw mechanism. Trimmers governed also through cable runs.


The power plant includes two five-cylinder radial engines, air-cooled. The capacity of each engine - 140 hp Diameter wooden propellers fixed pitch - 2,2 m.


Such a propulsion system used on all Soviet light airplanes of the time. In order to reduce manufacturing costs, many elements of the design of the power plant borrowed a training aircraft UT-2. The only difference was in the tank, which installed two each had a capacity of 195 liters on the new car. They were made of plywood and sealed by adhesive coatings VIAM-B-3.


The Yak-6 had a simple set of equipment, which allowed him to spend the night flights. These included flight and navigational instruments, landing light and navigation lights that were fed with electricity from the battery. Radio stations on the serial Yak-6 not installed.

Some models were equipped gun ShKAS, access to which is opened through a special hatch battened down two duralumin covers.


The Yak-6 has camouflage masking tricolor color. From below the car is painted in light blue color. In winter, easy washing aircraft repainted with white paint to make the masking qualities.

Yak-6 characteristics:

Modification   Yak-6
Wingspan, m   14.00
Length m   10.35
Height, m  
Wing area, m2   29.60
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   1433
  normal takeoff   2350
engine's type   2 PD M-11F
Power, hp   X 2 140
Maximum speed km / h   230
Cruising speed, km / h   185
Practical range, km   900
The maximum rate of climb, m / min  
Practical ceiling, m   3380
Crew   2
Payload:   4 passenger
Armament:   one 7.62-mm ShKAS machine gun
  bomb load - up to 500 kg, 5 holders for bombs weighing from 50 to 250 kg.


As for me, the Yak-6 is a good enough airplane with high technical characteristics. But still I would have designed a car with the nose of the chassis, and not with the rear, as was done by Yakovlevs. As for the design itself, it is quite logical and reliable, in addition, the materials are light enough and not expensive. The farm itself was made of steel sheets, and wings of aluminum alloy, on top of which a strong fabric was stretched. The peculiarity of the machine can be called that it could be equipped with engines of different types. A fairly simple layout of this project, as for me, the more he had many shortcomings. As Yak-6 was allowed into serial production, I do not understand. The main problem was a weak power plant. Although I have not met with negative feedback on this project.

Yak-6 - the aircraft, the creation of which was in time of war. Necessity in it came with an understanding of the fact that R-5 and U-2 no longer correspond to time and are not able to withstand German technology. The speed, range, carrying capacity of pre-war vehicles were unsatisfactory. Designing a new specialized aircraft GKO instructed the OKB young A. Yakovlev. Two variants were put into the work at once - bomber and transport. The tree was used as much as possible in the construction. Even gasoline tanks were made from plywood sheets treated with a special compound. Like all Yakovlev cars, it was unusually easy to learn and easy to manage, and the staff of the service was only one mechanic. In military units it was immediately appreciated and loved. For two war years Yak-6 carried out bombing, transport flights for the front line, provided the front line with the rear, and the service ended with a stormtrooper.
Whether to create a plane in a hurry? Yes. Gaps, errors - and this is enough. But the plane performed its task. Largely due to "Duglasenku" Soviet aircraft to 1945 city became the mistress of the sky, and the Yak-6 made the basis for creating the first post-war passenger aircraft in the USSR.

This freighter was the first aircraft of this class, who made Yakovlev. I believe that it is a successful model, but for civil aviation, and not for military purposes. Although it was made during the Second World War, but it is not widely used in the army. Although it has been done and several modifications of this device Yak-6, and did not have wide application. Yet the creation of the first more or less high-quality transport aircraft marked the further development of the aviation industry in areas of Yakovlev.


Blog and articles