Yakovlev Yak-7


Yak-7 was designed by Soviet designers and was widely used during World War II. This machine is created on the aircraft plant №301 under the direction of designer Alexander Yakovlev and engineer KV Sinel'shchikova. The new fighter was designed on the basis of already suschestvovashego training aircraft Yak-7UTI.

Brief history and design features of the machine UC-7

When you create a machine-type UTI-26 designers could not even suggest that the device will be used as the base model of the new fighter. By remaking training machines started in the early years of the war, when the Red Army suffered heavy losses among the fighters. A special feature is that this machine had time to go through only factory tests and trials, and the state and it did not pass. After the factory test flight was launched in serial production. Despite this, the car met all requirements.


Manufactures Yak-7 in Moscow, Khimki, where the fall was released 41 years 51 machine. In addition, production was carried out in Novosibirsk, to the end of 41-11 Jacob built. Also, fighters of this class are manufactured and factory in the city of Gorky. In 1942 2602 year it planned to create a Yak-7.

Yak-7 was very similar in appearance to the previous version of the aircraft, but differed qualitatively the best flight and combat characteristics. The advantage was that the plane had engine mount, which is easily removed, thereby to this unit can be installed another engine.

Yak-7 photo

The new fighter model Yak-7 was established quite powerful weapons, represented by large-caliber gun from which it was possible to produce 120 shots. Also adopted were two types of synchronous machine gun with ammo ShKAS 1500 pieces. Lockers were placed on six rockets, which are launched from a rocket-propelled missile RS-82.

The pilots had protection in the form of an armored back of the chair, which was not on the previous aircraft. The fuel tanks were replaced with tanks of the protected type. Also, the second cabin was refitted, in which the instructor was placed in the original model. The second cabin was used as a passenger cabin or for the carriage of goods. Also here you could install an additional fuel tank. During the entire serial production, 6399 units of the Yak-7 aircraft were manufactured. It should be noted that all the time the designers carried out modifications and modernization of the device, due to which 18 of various modifications of this fighter was singled out.

Yak-7 scheme

Advantages of the Yak-7:

  • large glass area cab, which allows to effectively perform combat maneuvers and monitor the position of the enemy;
  • quality and excellent maneuverability at low altitudes, and these figures were just some of the fighters;
  • high-speed performance;
  • firepower, which was presented to a large number of weapons at the expense of this machine is really high quality to cope with the destruction of enemy aircraft;
  • despite the fact that the plane had a piston engine, it still provides very fast climb; This machine can carry out even some aerobatics.


Disadvantages Yak-7

  • Despite the powerful weapons, ammo was not enough, so sometimes during the battle, our pilots were simply unarmed. Especially sharply this problem is manifested in the battles that were fought far from its airport.
  • The machine was installed armor of medium thickness, thus reducing the weight and increase the speed, but the Yak-7 become more vulnerable to enemy fire.


Yak-7 characteristics:

Modification   Yak-7
Wingspan, m   10.00
Length m   8.50
Height, m   2.75
Wing area, m2   17.15
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   2477
  normal takeoff   2960
engine's type   1 PD M-105P
Power, hp   X 1 1050
Maximum speed km / h  
  near the ground   471
  on high   560
Practical range, km   643
Rate of climb, m / min   735
Practical ceiling, m   9250
Crew   1
Armament:   one 20-mm SHVAK cannon (120 ammunition for shells) and
  two 7.62-mm SHKA machine gun


Yak-7 video


Yakovlev Yak-7R

Yak-7R - project interceptor fighter based on the Yak-7.

The decision to create a jet interceptor fighter produced by modifying the existing standard Yak-7 in military terms was appropriate, because allows you to build the plane in the shortest time. The decision was taken after a thorough review and analysis of six design options sketch of jet fighter-interceptor.

The aircraft had planned to use the combined power plant, which included two ramjet DM 4S design IA Merkulov and a liquid rocket engine development 1A D-LS Dushkin.

Engines DM 4S that produced maximum traction, which is located under the wing, and additional D-1A positioned in the rear fuselage. It was used for short-term set speed during takeoff and Dogon intercept air targets.


As fuel DM 4S used gasoline, which comes from the wing tanks. For D-1A fuel was kerosene oxidizer - nitric acid.

The project was the aircraft layout with four wing fuel tanks (two on each wing console), two kerosene tank located behind the cab, and a reservoir for nitric acid near the kerosene tanks.

Based on the introduction of a fundamentally new power plant, spent cleaning propeller, the engine M-105PA, engine mounts, engine hood, water and oil system, etc. In-rotor Yak-7 were only four gas tank wiring, which are located in the wings.

The tail wheel with rubber pneumatics replaced by a metal clip. In place of the installation of the engine by fixing at four points to the fuselage hung cockpit, which was a frame made of steel tubes and wheel duralumin sheet. Due to the removal of the length of the aircraft cabin forward increased 1,325 m. The site, which in the Yak-7 occupied the cabin crew in the Yak-7R Taps for kerosene tanks and tanks of nitric acid.

Due to the installation in the rear part of the engine liquid jet steering wheel cut at the bottom and at the top have increased. Due to this increased the total value of the tail on 0,042 m.

Fighter-interceptor armed with two machine guns UBS, each of which had 200 ammunition cartridges.

Work on the design of the Yak-7R ended in late August of 1942 implement the project failed because of the lack of reliable serial ramjet in wartime. It has been a rocket engine designers D-1A which equipped jet BI development VF Bolkhovitinov.


Although the aircraft was not possible to build, but in the course of the design has been raised a number of key questions about the equipment of different types of aircraft power plants with rocket and jet engines. This knowledge is applied during the development of the Yak-3RD.

Ramjet - is suspended underwing hollow cylinders that have faired. They happened burning gasoline, which causes the production of additional thrust, the latter has a direct impact on increasing the speed of the aircraft.

These motors have a simple design. They were first tested on a plane and-153 and 15 and-. Having made 60 flight got average growth rate within 25-30 km. Another plus - a small mass of the engine (24 kg). But these motors highly voracious - the gasoline consumed per kg 20 1 min., So it was advisable to use only during the Dogon opponent. At low speeds and during take-off to gain speed was small. These engines are planned to be installed inside the fuselage of some new aircraft.




I admire this project Yakovlev Design Bureau, because they really succeeded in creating a new strike aircraft with very high speed indicators. Due to the high speed, the effectiveness of the combat use of an aircraft of this class has significantly increased. Even with a small, as many believe, combat stock, he could do much in the air. As it was written below in the comments, that the aircraft had a weak armor, maybe so. But to begin with, the enemy needed to catch up with the given aircraft in order to shoot down, and that was not enough for every enemy aircraft at that time.

Typically, first designers create an aircraft, and the training version or simulator is done on its basis. In the fate of Yak-7, everything happened vice versa. Development of OKB A. Yakovlev training aircraft for the development of new Yak-1 fighters led to the creation of a very successful Yak-7UT. According to the results of the state tests, he was deemed optimal for retraining and training flights in fighter units and received a recommendation for launching the series. But the war that was started made the primary task of providing parts with combat aircraft. Therefore, at the factory evacuated in Novosibirsk, the designer of the OKB K. Sinelshchikov, seconded to help with the deployment of production, suggested creating a full-fledged fighter on the basis of the Utyshka. Changes in the design were not of a fundamental nature. Even the rear cabin after the dismantling of the unnecessary second set of equipment was not removed, but was used when necessary to transport passengers or cargo.
It is noteworthy that the Yak-7 was not only a drill machine, but also successfully served as a basis for testing and debugging of various new products. That it worked out features of the installation and use of air guns of large caliber, we studied the problems sealing the cockpit, considered the possibility of placing an additional fuel reserve through the rational use vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh space and much more.

Most designers paid more attention to the speed of the devices. Yakovlev did the same, but I believe that this position is not entirely correct, since the opponents also had high-speed models. The most important problem was that the aircraft had very weak armor, which very weakly protected the pilot and the machine itself from attacks by the enemy. And especially illogical in the bundle, I think there was a military reserve, which almost always was not enough for a full-scale air battle. Yak-7 also had its advantages, but all the ratios of the aircraft made the ego a mediocre combat unit.