Flaps Aircraft
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Flaps Aircraft

Flaps Aircraft

 

Mechanization of the wing of each aircraft It consists of a set of movable elements that allow you to adjust and control the flight apparatus. The complete set of elements of the wing consists of flaps, spoilers, slat, spoilers and flaperons.

Flaps - a profiled deflecting surface, which are arranged symmetrically to the trailing edge of each wing. When retracted, they act as an extension of the wing. In the extended state, they extend from the main portion of the wing to form a gap.

They significantly improve the load-bearing characteristics of the wing in the separation from the runway and climb the ship and its landing. Provides an excellent recovery and maintenance of the machine at a sufficiently low speeds. In the history of aviation has been developed and implemented in reality a lot of models and modifications of this part.

Flaps are an integral part of the wing. With their release significantly increases the curvature of the wing profile. Accordingly, increasing the bearing capacity of the wings of the aircraft. This ability allows you to navigate aircraft at low speeds without stalling. Work flap can significantly reduce the rate of take-off and landing without danger to the aircraft.

Aircraft wing flaps

Due to the release flap Increases aerodynamic drag. This is very useful when landing because they make more drag, which reduces the speed of flight. If the resistance is off a little bit out of place and takes part of the engine thrust. Accordingly, the landing flaps discharged completely, and during takeoff a small angle to facilitate the operation of the power plant.

Because of the time of flight of an additional longitudinal rebalancing occurs. This, of course, complicates the work of the pilots for the management and retention of the normal position of the aircraft. In most modern aviation aircraft are equipped with a slot type flaps that can consist of several sections, respectively, they form a plurality of slots. The presence of gaps between the sections of the flap helps the overflow of air from the high pressure in the upper part of the wing in the area of ​​low pressure under the wing.

Why flaps

The design of the flaps provides a tangential air flow relative to the upper surface of the surface The cross-section of the slot is narrowed towards the edges, which allows increasing the flow rate. Having passed the flap slots, the high-energy jet interacts with the air layer under the wing, thus eliminating the occurrence of vortices. The flaps can be operated at the command of the pilot or in automatic mode. The elements are removed and pulled out by electric, pneumatic or hydraulic drives. The first aircraft in our country, on which flaps were installed, was manufactured back in the 20s of the last century, it was an apparatus of the R-5 type. These wing elements began to be used more massively from the 30s, namely with the advent of machines with a monoplane body.

The main types of flaps

  • Rotary or a simple flap. The most elementary of its design, it allows you to increase the strength of lifting apparatus by changing the curvature of the wing profile. This design increases the air pressure below the wing. Of course, this type is much less efficient than shields.

  • Shield-type flaps. They can be retractable or simple. As for simple flaps, they are represented by a controlled surface, which is in the retracted position, while they fit snugly against the lower part of the wing. Deflecting, they create a zone of rarefied pressure on top of the wing. Accordingly, the upper boundary layer flows downward. The pressure indicators increase from below, which creates additional lifting force. All this contributes to the take-off and climb at much lower speeds. Speaking of retractable shield flaps, it is worth noting that, in addition to deflection, they have the ability to retract. This in turn increases their efficiency. This design increases the lifting force by 60%. They are still used today on light aircraft.

  • Slot type flap. They got their name due to the formation of a gap when they deviate. Through it passes a stream of air, which is directed with great force into the low pressure zone, formed under the wing of the aircraft. At the same time, the flow direction is well thought out and does not allow flow failure. The slot formed by the flap has a narrowing to the edge, which allows the passing flow to obtain the maximum energy. On modern aircraft, slot flaps are installed, consisting of several sections, which can form from one to three slits. Using such flaps, the aircraft receives a lift to 90%.

  • Flap Flaurea has a slide design. The difference is not only the possibility of extension back and down. This greatly increases the overall curvature of the wing profile device. Ego extension is capable of creating up to three slots. Increased lift reaches 100%.

  • Flap Junkers. Made by type slotted flap, only the upper part of the function of the aileron. This allows you to better manage the roll of the aircraft. The internal structure of the two flaps do the work. This design was used in the assault aircraft types Ju 87.

  • Flap design Jungmann. This design was first installed on the deck of a type of British fighter Firefly. By increasing the area of ​​the wing and lift them they planned to use in all phases of flight.

  • Flap Goudzha. The main objective of the design was to reduce the speed during landing. In addition to the change of curvature, they also increase the area of ​​the wing. Such a scheme has reduced the lift-off speed during takeoff. The inventor of this scheme is an English designer of Goudzh A., who worked hard on the aerodynamics schemes. They were equipped with in 1936, the aircraft Short Stirling.

  • Flap sduvnogo type. This design was a system of quality control of the upper boundary layer. Blowing can significantly improve the performance of the device while landing. This design allows the quality to ensure the overall flow around the wings. It is known that boundary layer arises due to the formation of viscous friction of air flow on the surface of the aircraft, the flow rate near zero trim. It is due to the impact of this layer can prevent the stall.

  • Flap reactive type. It provides a powerful flow of air in the plane of the wing that emerges from the bottom surface. It modifies and improves the streamlining lift apparatus. By increasing the force required to lift a more powerful air flow. It should be noted that the effectiveness of such a construction is greatly reduced by reducing the total elongation of the wing. Near the ground, such flaps do not justify the calculations of designers. As such, they are not widely used in the aircraft industry.

  • Stationary Gurney flap presented perpendicular to the plane, which is set at the end of the wings.

  • The flap has a constant curvature of the Coanda surface. It is designed for so-called Coanda effect - the jet adheres to the surface of the wing, which acts blowing.

Designers all over the world and today are fruitfully working to improve the aerodynamic properties of aircraft. 

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