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ZRK "Buk"

ZRK "Buk"

“Buk” (according to the GRAU index - 9K37, according to the codification of the NATO and US Defense Council - SA-11 Gadfly (translated as Gadfly) and its modifications) is a self-propelled air defense system designed to counter aerodynamic maneuvering targets at medium and low altitudes (from 30 meters 14-18 kilometers) in conditions of intense radio resistance.

ZRK "Buk" photo

Technical characteristics of the Buk-М1 air defense system:

The affected area, km:
- range
- height
- parameter
3,32 35 ..
0,015..20-22
to 22
Probability of hitting the target
- type fighter
- type helicopter
- type cruise missile
0,8 0,95 ..
0,3 0,6 ..
0,4 0,6 ..
Maximum target speed m / s 800
Reaction time, with: 22
Flight speed Zour, m / s 850
Rocket weight, kg 685
Warhead weight, kg 70
Conduit on purpose 2
Zanalny according to Zur 3
Deployment time (coagulation), min 5
The number of missiles on a combat vehicle 4

Since the end of the 70-s, the Buk series of anti-aircraft missile systems have become one of the main means of military air defense. To date, several modifications of this technology have been developed and adopted by the RF. They have been successfully used to date and occupy a worthy place in the weapons of Russia.

3РК9К37 "Beech"

The creation of new anti-aircraft systems "Buk" began after the decision of the USSR Council of Ministers on January 1972. The resolution identified the companies involved in the project, as well as the basic requirements for it. In the first technical task it was said that the new air defense system was to replace the existing in service 2K12 “Cube” complex. In addition, you need to create a rocket that could be used both in the Buk kit and in the M-22 Uragan sea anti-aircraft system.

ZRK "Beech" night shot

A new, more sophisticated anti-aircraft complex was designed to improve the equipment of military air defense, which could not but affect the requirements for its development. The specialists were required to mount all the components of the complex on a self-propelled chassis, as well as to ensure the possibility of working together with tanks and other armored vehicles in the same battle formations. The complex should hit aerodynamic air targets moving at speeds up to 800 meters per second at medium and low altitudes at distances up to 30 km. In addition, it was necessary to ensure the possibility of hitting a target using electronic countermeasures and maneuvering with overloading up to 12 units. In the future, the developers planned to "teach" the complex to resist the operational-tactical ballistic missiles.

The main developer of the air defense system 3РК9К37 “Buk” is the Scientific-Research Institute of Instrument Making. In addition, many other companies were involved in the project, including the Machine-Building Design Bureau “Start” and the NGO “Phazotron” of the Ministry of Radio Industry.

  • Chief designer of the anti-aircraft complex - A.A. Rastov.
  • G.N. Valaev - Head of the development of the command center of the complex. Later, his post was occupied by V.I. Sokiran.
  • V.V. Matyashev was responsible for the development of self-propelled fire installations.
  • I.G. Akopyan - led the process of creating a semi-active homing head.
  • Employees of the Scientific-Research Institute of Measuring Devices, headed by A.P. Petoshko (after some time he was replaced by Yu.P. Shchetkov).

ZRK "Buk" photo teachings

The development of the 9K37 complex was going to be completed by the middle of 1975. But in the spring of 1974, the developers decided to separate all types of work on 2 in separate directions. The development had to go in two stages. First of all, it was necessary to bring the 3М38 rocket as well as the self-propelled fire installation to mass production. Moreover, the latter was supposed to use the Kub-М9 systems available in service with the 9М3М3 missiles and are built using the components of the existing system.

According to forecasts, in the fall of 1974, the complex will be put to the test, and the creation of a full-fledged 3РК 9К37 with new components will continue according to a previously planned schedule. Such an approach to the development of new anti-aircraft systems should ensure the earliest possible start of deliveries and production of new equipment, which would significantly increase the combat potential of the ground forces.

ZRK "Beech" beautiful photo

3PK 9K37 includes several major elements. To monitor the air situation, they planned to use the 9С18 “Dome” detection and target station, and for launching the missiles, it was supposed to use the 9А39 start-up installation and the 9А310 self-propelled firing system. Coordination should be carried out using the command point 9C470. The target destruction target is an anti-aircraft guided missile 9М38.


The 9С18 Dome is a self-propelled tracked vehicle equipped with a three-axis coherent pulse radar, which is designed to monitor the situation in the air and transmit information about the targets to the command post. On the surface of the base chassis was located a rotatable antenna having an electric drive. The maximum target detection range is 115-120 km. In the situation with low-flying targets, this figure was significantly reduced. For example, a flying plane at a height of 30 meters was detected by the complex only from 45 kilometers. The SOC equipment allowed automatic reorganization of the working frequency in order to preserve the efficiency when using active interference by the enemy.

The main task of the station "Bought" - search targets and transfer information to the command post. During the 4,5 seconds review period, 75 marks were transmitted. On the basis of the self-propelled chassis, the command post 9C470 was executed, which is equipped with all the necessary equipment for processing data and issuing targets to launchers. The calculation of the command post - 6 people. For this, the command post was equipped with communications and data processing equipment. Equipping the command post allowed processing 46 targets for the 1 SOC review period. At the same time, targets could be located at altitudes up to 20 km and distances up to 100 km. Fire installations of 6 targets were issued.

The main means of attack of the enemy’s aircraft was to be the self-propelled gun 9А310. It was a further development of the SOO9А38 complex of the Buk-1 complex. On the crawler self-propelled chassis there was a rotary launcher with 4 guides for missiles, as well as a set of all necessary electronic equipment. In front of the launcher was installed radar accompanying target, which is also used for missile guidance.

ZRK "Buk" photo 123

To transport the charging of the SOW and the additional ammunition, the Buk SAM system included the 9А39 start-loading unit. Such a vehicle on a tracked chassis was used to transport 8 missiles, as well as reloading the SOU 9А310 launcher. The missiles were transported on 4 motionless cradles and a special type of launcher. Depending on the situation, the calculation of the machine could launch independently or overload the missiles from the launcher to the sow. But due to the absence of its own tracking radar, it was impossible to do without external target designation. For overloading missiles answered special crane.

The rocket 9М38 is made in a single-stage scheme. It differed cylindrical body of large elongation and had a lively head fairing. In the middle part of the body were X-shaped wings of small elongation, and in the tail there were steering wheels of exactly the same design. The rocket with a length of 5,5 meters and a starting weight of 690 kg was equipped with a dual-mode solid-fuel engine, a semi-active radar homing head and a high-explosive fragmentation warhead. In order to exclude centering changes as the charge burns out, the engine was specially placed in the center of the body and additionally equipped with a long nozzle-gas duct.

The new 9K37 Buk made it possible to hit targets at altitudes up to 20 km and distances up to 30 km. Reaction time is 22 seconds. It took about 5 minutes to get ready for work. The probability of hitting a target with a rocket that accelerated in flight to 850 meters per second - to 0,9. The probability of hitting a helicopter with one rocket is up to 0,6. The probability of hitting a cruise missile of the first missile is up to 0,5.

ZRK "Buk" photo volley

Modern tests of this air defense system began at the Emba test site in the fall of 1977, and continued until the spring of the 1979. During the tests, it was possible to test the combat work of the complex in different conditions and for different conventional targets. For example, regular means and other similar stations were used to monitor the air situation. During test launches, an attack of training targets was carried out using a radio fuse of a warhead. If the target was not hit, a second rocket was launched.

During the tests, it was established that the new 3РК 9К37 has many important advantages over the equipment that was already in service. The composition of the radio-electronic equipment of the SOW and SOC provided high reliability of the detection of air targets due to the presence of its own equipment of self-propelled military installations. The updated equipment of various components of the complex, including rockets, contributed to greater noise immunity. In addition, the rocket carried a heavy warhead, which made it possible to increase the accuracy of hitting the target.

ZRK "Buk" looks into the barrel

According to the results of improvements and tests of the 9K37 air defense missile system the “Buk” was put into service in the 1990 year. New complexes began to be used as part of rocket brigades. Each connection consisted of the 1 brigade command post from the Polyana-D4 ACS and the 4 division. The division included its own command center 9С470, three batteries with 2 SOU 9А310 and 1 ROM 9А39 in each, detection and targeting station 9С18. In addition, the brigades had a communications, maintenance and support unit.

ЗРК 9К37-1 «Бук-1»/«Куб-М4»

In the 1974 year, due to the urgent need to re-equip the air defense units of the ground forces, it was decided to create a simplified modification of the 9K37 complex, developed using existing units and assemblies. It was assumed that such air defense missile systems, which received the designation 9К37-1 “Buk-1”, will complement the existing systems “Cube-M3” in the troops. Thus, as part of each of the 5 batteries of the regiment there was a new SOU 9А38, which is part of the Buk-1 complex.

ZRK "Buk" photo 321

According to the calculations, the cost of one 9А38 SOU will be about 1 / 3 for all other means of the battery, but in this case it will be possible to ensure a substantial increase in combat capabilities. Thus, the number of target channels of the regiment would increase 2 times from 5 to 10, and the number of missiles ready for use also increased from 60 to 75. Thus, the modernization of air defense units by means of new combat vehicles absolutely paid off.

SOU 9А38 in its architecture was not much different from the machine 9А310. On a tracked chassis, a rotary platform with a radar detection, tracking and lighting 9C35 and launcher. Launcher SAU 9А38 had interchangeable guides, designed to use 2 types of missiles. Depending on the situation, available resources and combat tasks, the complex could use the new 9М38 or 9М9М3 missiles that are already in service.

ZRK "Beech" super photo

State tests of the air defense system began in August 1975 of the year and took place on the Emba range. In the tests took part the new sow 9А38 and existing machines of other types. The target was detected using a self-propelled reconnaissance and guidance system 1С91М3, which was at the Cube-М3 complex, and the missiles were launched from the SOU 2П25М3 and 9438. Used missiles of various types (of all available).


During the test, it turned out that the 9C35 radar 9А38 radar can detect targets on distances up to 65-75 kilometers (at altitudes from 3 kilometers). If the target height was not more than 100 meters, then the maximum detection range was up to 35-45 kilometers. Moreover, the real indicators of target detection directly depended on the limited capabilities of the Cube-M3 vehicles. Such combat characteristics as the height of a target’s hitting or range depended on the type of rocket used.

In 1978, the new 9K371 ADMS entered service as part of the 9М38 rocket and 9А38 self-propelled firing system. As a result, the Buk-1 complex received another designation. Since the rocket and the sow were only an addition to the already existing facilities of the Kub-М3 complex, the AMS using the 9А38 machine became designated 2КХNUMXМ12 "Cube-М4". Thus, the 4K9-37 air defense missile system, which is a simplified version of the Buk, was formally assigned to the previous Cube family, although at that time it was the main air defense system of the ground forces.

Buk-М1 SAM

In the autumn of 1979, another Council of Ministers decision was issued, according to which it was necessary to develop a new modification of the Buk air defense system. This time the task was to increase the combat characteristics of the air defense system, increase the level of protection against anti-radar missiles and interference. The organizations participating in the project, by the beginning of 1982, completed the development of new, more sophisticated elements of the complex, thereby increasing the main indicators of the system.

ZRK "Beech" photo rockets

The experts proposed to modify the on-board equipment of the machines in order to improve their characteristics. At the same time, the complex had no significant differences from its predecessor. Thanks to this, different machines from the Buk and Buk-М1 anti-aircraft missile systems were interchangeable and were part of the same unit.

In the new project, all the main elements of the complex were improved. The Buk-М1 SAM for target detection was supposed to use the modernized SOC 9C18М1 "Dome-М1". Now it was proposed to install a new radar station with a special phased antenna array on the tracked chassis. In order to increase the degree of unification of the machines of the complex, it was decided to create a Kupol-MNNUMX station based on GM-1M, similar to that used in other components of the complex.

For processing the data received from the SOC, it was proposed to use the updated command post, namely 9С470М1 with the new composition of the equipment. An improved command post could ensure simultaneous reception of data from the division’s air defense command post and from the SOC. In addition, it was planned to introduce a training regime, which allowed the training of calculations of all existing means of the complex.

photo inside

The 9А310М1 Buk-М1 ADMS has now received an updated tracking and illumination radar. Thanks to the new equipment, it was possible to increase the capture range of the air target by 25-30%. The probability of recognizing ballistic and aerodynamic targets was increased to 0,6. To increase the noise immunity, the self-propelled fire installation had an 72 lettering frequency backlight, which is 2 times as large as the base 9XNNXX.

Implemented innovations displayed on the combat effectiveness of the air defense system. While maintaining the general indicators of the height and range of the target's damage and without using a new missile, the probability of hitting one fighter against the same missile was increased to 0,95. The probability of hitting the helicopter remained at the same level, while the similar indicator for ballistic missiles increased to 0,6.

From February to December on the Emba range 1982, tests of the new Buk-М9 air defense system 37К1 were conducted. Testing showed a significant increase in the main indicators compared with the existing complexes, so that the system was adopted. The official adoption of the air defense system took place in 1983 year. Mass serial production of advanced technology took place at the enterprises that previously participated in the creation of the Buk complexes of the first 2 models.

ZRK "Beech" 3434

A new type of serial technology was used in the anti-aircraft brigades of the ground forces. Components of the Buk-M1 system were distributed over several batteries. Despite the modernization of individual means of the air defense missile system, the staff organization of anti-aircraft units remained unchanged. In addition, if necessary, the use of two complexes “Buk” and “Buk-МХNUMX” in one subdivision was allowed.

Buk-М1 air defense system is the first system of its series, which was offered to foreign customers. The air defense system was delivered to foreign armies and was called the "Ganges". For example, in 1997, several Finnish complexes were transferred within the framework of debt repayment from Russia.

ZRK 9K317 "Buk-M2"

At the end of the 80-s, the creation of an updated Buk family anti-aircraft missile system with a more sophisticated 9М317 rocket was completed. Then he received the designation of the 9K317 Buk-M system. Thanks to the new guided munition, it was intended to substantially increase the height and range of the target. In addition, the characteristics of the system should have a positive impact on the use of new equipment, which was installed on various machines of the complex.

But the difficult economic situation, which was at that time in the country, did not allow adopting a new complex. This did not happen either in the late eighties or in the early nineties. As a result, the issue of updating the equipment of the air defense units was resolved at the expense of the “transitional” air defense system “Buk-М1-2”. At the same time, the development of the 9K317 system continued. Moreover, the work on the updated project “Buk-М2”, as well as its export version “Buk-М2E” did not stop until the middle of the two thousandth.

ZRK "Buk" photo

The most important innovation of the Buk-M project is the new 9М317 guided missile. The main differences between the new ZUR and 9М38 are: a shorter wing length, starting weight of about 720 kg and a modified hull design. Due to changes in the design and use of the new engine, it was possible to increase the firing range, its maximum indicator is up to 45 kilometers. At the same time, the maximum flight altitude of the target increased to 25 kilometers. To expand the combat capabilities of the corps, another innovation was introduced - now the rocket got the opportunity to turn off the remote fuse with undermining of the warhead on the contact command. This mode of operation is suitable for using missiles against surface and ground targets.

ZRK received a modified 9А317 SOU based on the GM-569 tracked chassis. Despite the fact that the overall architecture of the fire installation has not changed, the new machine is built on the basis of new equipment and modern element base. As before, the LDS can itself find and accompany an air target, launch a rocket and track its trajectory, and, if necessary, make corrections through the radio command system.

SOU 9А317 has a tracking radar and a backlight with a special phased antenna array. The station can track targets in the sector by elevation to 70 ° and 90 ° width. The target is detected at distances up to 20 kilometers. The target, being in the tracking mode, can be within the sector with a width of -5 ° to + 85 ° in elevation and 130 ° in azimuth. The station is capable of detecting up to ten targets simultaneously and provides simultaneous attack of four of them.

ZRK "Buk" photo 4343

In order to increase the characteristics of the complex and ensure normal operation in difficult conditions, the self-propelled firing unit is equipped with an optical-electronic system with night and day valves.

Buk-М2 ADMS is equipped with 2 types of starting and charging equipment. The self-propelled vehicle was developed on the basis of the chassis GM-577 and towed with a car tractor. In this case, the overall architecture is the same: the 4 missiles are on the launcher and can be overloaded on the SOW or launched. Another 4 transported on special transport cradle.

The new modification includes a new command post 9C510 on a towed semi-trailer or on the basis of the GM-579 chassis. KP automatics can receive data from surveillance equipment and accompany up to sixty tracks simultaneously. Provides the ability to issue targets for 16-36 goals. As for the reaction time, it does not exceed 2 seconds.

The main target detection tool in the Buk-М2 complex is the SOC 9С18М1-3, which is a further development of the family systems. The new radar is equipped with a phased antenna array with electronic scanning and can detect targets at ranges up to 160 kilometers. There are modes of operation that ensure the detection of targets when passive and active interference is used by the enemy.

ZRK "Buk" photo 4343

The structure of the towed / self-propelled vehicles of the Buk-М2 complex is proposed to introduce a missile guidance station and target illumination. The new 9C36 is a towed semi-trailer or tracked chassis with an antenna post on a retractable mast. Thanks to this equipment, you can raise the antenna to a height of up to 22 meters and thus increase the characteristics of the RSL. Such a high altitude makes it possible to detect air targets at distances up to 120 kilometers. According to the tracking and guidance characteristics, the station does not differ from the radar of self-propelled fire engines. It provides tracking of ten targets and allows simultaneous shelling of four of them.

All changes and innovations in the composition of the complex allowed to significantly improve its characteristics. The maximum height of the interception of an air target is 25 km, and the maximum range is at the level of 50 km. When attacking non-maneuvering aircraft, the greatest range is achieved. The interception of operational-tactical ballistic missiles is carried out at altitudes up to 16 km and distances up to 20 km. There is also the possibility of the destruction of helicopters, anti-radar and cruise missiles. If necessary, the calculation of the air defense system can attack radio-contrast or surface surface targets.

The first version of the project 9К317 appeared at the end of 80-s, then, due to the difficult economic situation of the state, it was not adopted. The use of this complex in hostilities began only in 2008 year. By that time, the air defense system had a lot of improvements that allowed it to improve its performance.

Buk-М1-2 ADMS

Numerous political and economic problems did not allow the new 9K317 air defense system to be put into service and put into mass production. Therefore, in 1992, it was decided to create a simplified, so-called “transitional” version of the complex that would not only use some of the components of “Buka-2”, but was also cheaper and simpler. And the solution was found - "Buk-M1-2" and "Ural".

The upgraded anti-aircraft missile system "Ural" combines several improved machines that were presented with the further development of old-style equipment. To launch rockets, as well as target illumination, it was intended to use the 9А310М1-2 SOU, which works in conjunction with the 9А38М1 starting and loading machine. As for the SOC, it has not changed - “Buk-М1-2” should have used the station model 9С18М1. Not received significant changes and auxiliary means of the complex.

ZRK "Beech" photo camouflage

In order to increase the secrecy of work and survivability, as well as to expand the range of tasks, the self-propelled fire installation was given the opportunity of passive direction finding. For this implied the use of a laser rangefinder and a television-optical reticle. Such equipment was worth using when attacking surface or ground targets.

Modernization of various elements of the complex and the development of a new missile made it possible to significantly increase the size of the target firing zone. In addition, the likelihood of hitting a ballistic or aerodynamic target with one rocket increased. Now it is possible to fully operate the 9А310М1-2 SOU in the role of an independent air defense system that could detect and destroy air targets without outside help.

The Buk-М1-2 air defense system entered service with the Russian Army in 1998. In the future, several contracts were signed for the supply of this equipment to foreign and domestic customers.

Buk-M2E ADMS

The export version of the Buk-MNNUME air defense system was introduced in the second half of the 2000th. He received the designation 2K9E “Buk-М317E” and was an improved version of the basic system, which had some differences in the composition of computing and radio-electronic equipment. Thanks to the modifications made, it was possible to improve some characteristics of the system, primarily related to its operation.

ZRK "Buk" photo 42342

The main differences of the export version of the complex from the base one are the modernization of electronic equipment made using modern digital computers. Due to high performance, such equipment allows not only to carry out combat missions, but also to work in training mode to prepare calculations. Data on the air situation and the work of the steel systems are displayed on liquid crystal monitors.

Instead of the teleoptic reticle, which was previously, a television-thermal system was introduced into the equipment for observation. It allows you to find and automatically track targets in all weather conditions and at any time of the day. The equipment for documenting the work of the complex, communication facilities and many other systems was also updated.

The self-propelled fire machine RZK 9K317E can be built on a wheeled or tracked chassis. A few years ago, a variant of such a machine was introduced based on the wheel chassis of the M3KT-6922 model. Thus, a potential customer will be able to choose the chassis option that would suit him completely.

Buk-М3 SAM

The creation of a new Buk anti-aircraft missile system was announced several years ago. SAM 9K37М3 "Buk-М3" should be the impetus for the subsequent development of this family with increased combat capabilities and characteristics. It was proposed to fulfill the system requirements by replacing the equipment of the Buk-М2 air defense system with a new digital equipment.

Means of the complex will receive a set of new equipment with higher quality characteristics. Combat qualities are going to improve through the use of a new rocket, along with a modified SOU. Instead of the open launcher, which was previously, the new self-propelled fire installation should receive special lifting mechanisms with mounts intended for transport and launch containers. The new rocket model 9М317М will be delivered in containers and launched from them. Such changes to the air defense system will increase the ready-to-use ammunition.

ZRK "Beech" photo of the rocket

If you look at the photos of the Sook of the Buk-M3 complex, you will see a vehicle based on a tracked chassis with a turntable, where the 2 rocking 6 rocket package on each of them is fixed. So, without cardinal processing, the sow's structure was able to double the ammunition ready for firing.

Unfortunately, the detailed characteristics of the Buk-M3 complex have not yet been disclosed. Domestic media, citing their sources, reported that the new rocket 9М317М will be able to attack targets at ranges up to 75 km and destroy them with one rocket with a probability of no less than 0,95-0,97. In addition, it was reported that soon the experienced Buk-М3 air defense system will pass a whole complex of tests, after which it will be adopted.

Rumor has it that the domestic defense industry plans to continue the development of the Buk air defense system. The next family air defense system, according to unofficial data, can receive the designation “Beech-М4”. But for the time being it is too early to say the characteristics of this system. At the moment, even the general requirements for it are unknown.

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