The aircraft type MiG-1 was established as the first fighter known designers Mikoyan and Gurevich. This machine has other designations, such as "product 61" project or "X", a well-known name and it was-200. This machine was the first high-speed fighter, which was created by Soviet designers.

The history of the MiG-1

A new fighter began to be designed in Polikarpov's design bureau from November 1939. The new product was planned to be used as a fighter, which should be distinguished by high flight speeds. It is for this reason that great attention was paid to the aerodynamics of the hull. To improve the streamlining of the machine, newer materials were used and the sheath of the apparatus was grinded qualitatively. But, as you know, for the speed of the aircraft basically meets the power plant, which for this fighter was powerful enough at that time. All this should ensure high speed and excellent control of the aircraft.


Designers achieve planned airspeed in 670 km / h, with a practical ceiling flight should be at least 7 kilometers. The machine could perform military tasks such as attack or fighter escort over long distances. It is said that almost all the designers of the plans have been implemented in the new fighter.

At the end of the year 39 was approved layout MiG-1, and the next day, the designers started working drawings. In order for the aircraft was made as quickly as possible, it is connected a large number of workers from different industries. In addition, production was carried out in two shifts, and even a week.

After purging the first plane layout, it became clear that the designers thought was excellent aerodynamics of the machine. These studies have confirmed the usefulness of the project, and he was sent for further manufacturing. The joint fruitful work of designers has led to the fact that in February 40 years 1 MiG-was transferred to serial production.


For the first time this fighter was presented to the public in the summer of 1940 years at a military parade in Tushino. In the first year of serial production 100 machines of this type were built, and the following year were ready 89 devices.

The test apparatus MiG-1

In the first factory tests, it was clear that the car has reached conceived by designers of high-speed performance. In May, the MiG-40 1 reached a top speed of 648,5 km / h, these figures were obtained on the altitude in 6,9 kilometers. The second instance of the machine, which was tested and showed an even greater rate in the 651 km / h. With regard to the maximum altitude, it was equal to 8,5 kilometers. But there were rumors that the car could go up to a height of more than 11 kilometers, but documentary evidence that does not exist.


Installed on the MiG-1 engine was not always a reliable unit and sometimes could lead pilots. In addition to the capricious nature, the engine also required the replacement of motor candles after every three hours of flight, which was also uncomfortable. That is why at the end of 40 the designers began testing a new, more reliable engine, AM-37. This power plant was characterized by the fact that the air in the carburettor of the apparatus was supplied from the supercharger, and this air was pre-cooled by means of a water radiator. Also, two nine-inch water radiators were installed to cool the water. In addition, a new screw of VISH-61 type was used for this engine, which could change the pitch. But all this in practice was not crowned with great success, because already at an altitude of 4 kilometers the engine began to shake and almost died.

Design features of the MiG-1

The aircraft had a design that is very much like airplanes and-16, but there were a lot of differences. new fighter fuselage was made by design scheme plan. The tail of the car is made as a semi-monocoque, which had the additional fastening of wooden frames and stingers. Middle and bow sections of the device are presented removable engine mount, which was welded from tubes and covered with sheets of duralumin.

MiG-1 video

aircraft center wing was constructed as an all-metal construction. Besides metals, included in the tree structure of the machine, from which were manufactured console wings, resulting in increased reliability and lower weight of the wing. Designers had to use wood because of an acute shortage of metal.

The power plant has been presented powerful enough, but at the same time heavy engine type AM-35, which should work well at high altitudes with low oxygen content in the air. This engine could give power 1200 horsepower, but it was achieved at altitudes of more than 5 kilometers. The most efficient flight was at an altitude of 7 kilometers or more, where the MiG-1 could reach the maximum speed performance. The closer to the ground flying machine, the worse were the characteristics of the flight.

With regard to the fuel system, the aircraft type MiG-1 it was represented by two tanks, which were placed in the center section of the wings. Further this type of aircraft were equipped with extra fuel tanks for greater range.


In addition to the merits, the plane also had shortcomings, the largest was the construction of the pilot lamp, which reclined side. This opening of the scheme has led to the fact that during the flight the pilot could not open the car lights. Window shutters, which were to provide ventilation of the cockpit, working ineffectively and can not provide adequate ventilation and cooling in the cabin. These deficiencies have been finalized, and serial MiG-1 were equipped with a flashlight, which shifted back. Also, designers have provided a more efficient ventilation and cooling system.

All the shortcomings of the MiG-1 have been identified and developed by designers. This metamorphosis has led to the emergence of a new fighter, which was designated as the MiG-3, he also replaced the MiG-1.

MiG-1 characteristics:

Modification   MiG-1
Wingspan, m   10.20
Length m   8.15
Height, m   3.30
Wing area, m2   17.44
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   2411
  normal takeoff   3099
  maximum take-off   3319
  Fuel   266
engine's type   1 PD AM-35A
Power, hp   X 1 1350
Maximum speed km / h  
  on high   657
  near the ground   486
Cruising speed, km / h   466
Practical range, km   580
The maximum rate of climb, m / min   1008
Practical ceiling, m   12000
Crew   1
Armament:   two ShKAS machine guns of 7,62 mm caliber (1500 ammunition of cartridges) and one BS of 12,7 caliber mm (300 ammunition of cartridges).
 four beams of bomb racks, on which 4 bombs with a total weight of up to 220 kg could be hung or two VAP-6M poured outlets with a capacity of 50 liters. Under each console, X-NUMX RO-4 flute-type rocket launchers could also be installed for firing with POC-82 rockets.



MiG-1 is the "grandfather" of modern supersonic fighters. Adopted at the end of 1940 year, he was able to start a whole family of MiG fighters, who showed themselves in the best light during the Great Patriotic War. It was in this model that the foundations of future projects were laid, which undoubtedly makes this aircraft an important part in the history of the development of aircraft construction in the USSR. It was on this model that the most suitable aerodynamic shape was chosen, which allowed it to accelerate to a speed equal to 654 km / h. Subsequently, it is this form that will become the hallmark of the entire MiG family. However, the first airplane did not come without flaws: there was not enough ventilation in the cockpit, and the ventilators could not arrange sufficient airflow of the pilot, which made it difficult to use the fighter in the hot season, and it was impossible to open the cabin during the flight because of the unsuccessfully chosen direction of opening the central Sashes. On later models, this problem was eliminated, but despite this, the aircraft was suspended, and its place was taken by more modern and thoughtful samples. "Grandfather", after going through the Second World War, took its well-deserved place in history.