Tupolev Tu-148


The project Tu-148 designed as a deep modernization of the Tu-128 and was a loitering interceptor.

The beginning of the design of the new aviation complex, named in the Tupolev design bureau as an 148 aircraft, falls on 1965. In autumn 1965, the main characteristics of the complex, the purpose, the capabilities, taking into account the design of the aircraft, were determined. The use of two turbojet engines VD-19Р2 and variable sweep wings contributed, according to the idea of ​​the OKB, to the expansion of the functionality of the new aircraft. Presumably, the speed of the Tu-148 was supposed to reach 50-100 at an altitude of 1400 km / h, and at 18 km - 2500 km / h. The range of flight in the subsonic regime, applying the sweep of the wing, corresponding to cruising flight, would be 4800 km. This figure can be increased by about 30-40%, using the refueling system in flight.


Compared with the basic Tu-128, the increase in weight lifting fighter Tu-148 not affect the performance characteristics of the new machine. In particular, the run on the runway during take-off was significantly lower (800 m at Tu-148 1350 m against the Tu-128). Functionality project interceptor were greatly expanded. If it is appropriate to provide equipment that can be used to detect air and ground targets, used as a means of air defense for the defense of naval ships, as the carrier of cruise missiles "air-land".

Plus, the Tu-148 designed to defeat enemy land bases and aircraft AWACS could be used as a high-altitude and low-altitude fotorazvedchika, carry electronic reconnaissance and ground attack role in the placement of weak enemy air defenses. That is intended to receive the output multi-purpose aircraft.

Another significant change Tu-128 - is the introduction of the equipment systems combined teploradiolokatsionnoy weapon control systems "Smerch-100».

It included:

  • kvazinepriryvnogo radar radiation, which sends and receives signals by antenna diameter 2 m;

  • Equipment thermal channel detection and tracking of targets, coupled with the radar;

  • digital onboard computer;

  • radar antenna designed for side-scan.

The system "Smerch-100» allows for the release of the missiles and their control at a distance of up to 250 km away from the goal. These were the figures on the verge of science fiction at the time. In the first stage of the weapons complex was planned to include missile K-100, which had a combined teploradiolokatsionnuyu GOS. Range launch of such missiles was 80 km. "Smerch" systems allowed to go further in the use of missiles, "air-air" longer range.

Armament of the aircraft made it possible to intercept and defeat enemy targets located at altitudes from 50 to 32 000 m and cruising at a speed of 500-4500 km / h. The on-board equipment includes the most advanced systems, such as a trajectory control system, a single on-board automatic system for receiving information flow about various purposes, a PNO complex, a low-altitude flight system. All equipment and weapons were in the cargo compartment of the fuselage. In the process of operation, it was possible to quickly switch from one use case to another by re-installing the equipment.


Presumably the cargo area could provide the following layout options:

  • 4 missiles K-100;

  • 2-28 Kh or one X-22;

  • 4 missiles K-100P;

  • electronic intelligence equipment "Sabre", "Bulat" or "Bend";

  • AFA type "Diamond";

  • AFA-42 / 20 and Paphos with an additional fuel tank;

  • AFA-45 and 2 AFA-54;

  • Nursi containers or two tactical nuclear bombs.

Option range interceptor perfect to protect and cover the eastern and northern regions of the state. If the project was successful, the air defense of the USSR would receive an effective means of interception.

A huge amount of ultra-modern equipment was introduced into the project. At that time, the development of radio electronics, the appearance of such a complex could occur only after a decade. In practice, and it turned out: a similar, but a simplified version of the interceptor fighter was built only in the 70-ies. The creation of a multipurpose machine that could perform the functions of a front-line drummer, an interceptor of targets, and conduct reconnaissance operations was not suited to the requests of the Soviet Air Force, which, unlike the Americans, preferred narrowly specialized aircraft. All this has affected the refusal of the customer from further development of the project.


The second wave of works on creation of the Tu-148 began in late 60-ies, when developed a new weapon system "Barrier". It consists of alleged use of missiles K-33, which are not inferior to K-100 on launch range. Compared with the system "Smerch-100» functionality was cut, and then release it was more realistic.

It was decided instead of a multi-purpose aircraft to create a long-range interception system equipped with modern equipment of domestic industry. Further work to improve the Tu-148 was seen as a deep modernization of the Tu-128. Compared with the Tu-128С, the combat capabilities of the vehicle were to be more effective due to improved performance of the car. The minimum altitude of the flight during the interception of targets was reduced to 50 m. There was the possibility of interception of small-sized missiles, the range of speeds of intercepted objects was expanded. The intercept aircraft Tu-148 could conduct simultaneous attack of two targets, as well as act in the group.

Compared with the basic Tu-128 increased range and endurance, improved takeoff and technical acceleration and takeoff and landing performance. Older engines AL-7F-2 replaced by RD-36-41, who had plenty of power. Improved design of the fuselage, redesigned air inlets and channels, has received a new wing variable sweep, reinforced chassis design.

Operation of the Tu-148 was supposed to carry out a basic airfield Tu-128. Draft design of the aircraft transferred to the Air Defense Command. After its approval in the OKB. Tupolev launched work on the design. Built full-size mock-148 Tu repeatedly came to watch the customer. But in connection with the death of Commander of the Air Defense Kadomtsev, who gave the green light to a project to build the plane failed. The new management has considered it more efficient use of the weapon system "Barrier" series aircraft MiG-25P and MiG-31.

Tu-148 characteristics:

Modification   Tu-148
Wingspan, m   25.60
Length m   32.50
Height, m   7.50
  empty aircraft  
  maximum take-off   60000
  Fuel   21800
engine's type   2 TRD RD36-41
Link unforced, kgf   X 2 16000
Maximum speed km / h   2500
Practical range, km   4600
Combat range, km   1656
Practical ceiling, m   17000
Crew   2
Armament:   4 URVV K-33


Tupolev Tu-148. Gallery.

Tu-148 photoTu-148 model fighter-interceptorTu-148 on earth

Tu-148 photos from different anglesTu-148 modelTu-148 wing structure