Rocket launch: video, photo, history
Rocket launch: video, photo, history

Rocket launch: video, photo, history

It may seem to many that space has already lost its romance. Today rocket launch is a routine and routine. To refute this statement, see the launch of the rocket on the video.


The process of launching a rocket may seem familiar to you, as we have repeatedly seen it in the movies and on TV. But have you ever wondered how an unmanned gas manages to throw a multi-ton colossus into space orbit? How this happens, we learn below, and start, perhaps, it is worth from the beginning.


Rocket launch history


One of the first sketches of a multi-stage rocket was introduced in 1556 year. It was published in the book by the military technician Knrad Haas. In the 17 century, a drawing with the image of missiles appeared in the work of the military “Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima”, owned by an engineer and artillery general Kazimir Semenovich. It was printed in Amsterdam in 1650. It depicts a three-stage rocket in which the 3 stage is nested on the 2 stage, and together they are in the first stage. In the head part is the composition for the fireworks. Rockets are stuffed with solid fuel. This invention, first of all, is interesting because it more than 300 years ago surpassed the direction in which the modern rocket technology actually went.


The idea of ​​using multi-stage rockets was first put forward by engineer Robert Goddart in 1914. A patent was obtained for this invention.

Photo 1

In 1929, the year K.E. Tsiolkovsky delivered his own book, Space Rocket Trains. K. Tsiolkovsky called such a term rockets or an aggregate of rockets making a run up the earth, then in the air, and in outer space. A train, for example, consisting of five missiles, is conducted first by the head rocket, by using its fuel, it is disengaged and then dropped to the ground. Then, in exactly the same way, the second one begins to work, after which the third, fourth and fifth. The speed of the latter by then is already quite high. It allows you to significantly facilitate the entire structure. The length of each rocket, according to Tsiolkovsky - 30 m. Diameter - 3 m. Gases from the nozzles are indirectly pulled out to the axis of the rocket, so as not to put pressure on the next rocket. As for the length of the run on the ground, it is 100 km.


Despite the fact that rocket science in technical details went a little differently (modern missiles, for example, now do not "run" on the ground, but take off vertically, moreover, the order of operation of the stages of a modern rocket became the opposite, in relation to about which Tsiolkovsky spoke), the idea of ​​a multi-stage rocket is still relevant today.


In 1935, Tsiolkovsky published the work “The Highest Rocket Speed”, in which he said that with the technology level of this time, the first cosmic velocity on Earth could only be achieved using a multi-stage rocket. His statement maintains its fairness to the present day: all modern spacecraft are multistage. The first man-made volume that crossed the Karman line and went into space was the German single-stage V-2 rocket. She reached the altitude of 188 km.

launch Fow-2

The principle of the rocket


To overcome gravity, the rocket needs a large supply of fuel. And the bigger it is, the greater the weight of the rocket. Therefore, in order to reduce the weight of the rocket, as already noted above, they are built on the principle of multi-stage. In addition, each stage is a separate rocket, which has its own fuel supply and a rocket engine.


How are the steps of a space rocket?


Immediately it should be said that the first step is the largest. It can have up to six engines (depending on how heavy the load must be sent into space).


In the traditional version - there are three of them. They are located symmetrically around the edges of an isosceles triangle, which seems to be girdling a rocket around the perimeter. The first stage is the most powerful and large, since it is she who opens the rocket from the Earth. Once all the fuel in the stage has been consumed, it is discarded.


Then the movement of the rocket is controlled by second-stage engines. In some cases, they are called acceleration, since they provide the first rocket speed, which is enough to enter Earth orbit.

Photo 3

This can happen several times, with all the stages of the rocket having less weight than the next, since the force of gravity of the Earth with climb only decreases.


How many times this process is repeated, so many stages contains a rocket. The last stage is intended for maneuvering (for correction of flight, the main engines are in each stage of the rocket) and for delivering the astronauts and the payload to the destination.


Finally, it is worth noting that the principle of operation and the design of the missiles are arranged in the same way as ballistic multi-stage missiles that carry terrible nuclear weapons. They can destroy not only all living things, but also the planet itself. They go into Earth orbit and from there hit ground targets with numerous warheads carrying nuclear charges. And in order for them to fly to the most distant point, they only need 20-25 min.