Air defense: photo, characteristics, tasks, air defense systems

Air defense is a set of steps and b / actions of troops aimed at fighting the enemy’s air attack weapons in order to reduce (aversion) losses among the population, damage to military targets and groups from air strikes. To break down (repel) strikes (attacks) of the air enemy, special air defense systems are formed.

The air defense system covers the following systems:

  1. EW organizations.
  2. Air enemy reconnaissance, as well as troop announcements about it.
  3. Masking.
  4. EW organizations.
  5. Anti-aircraft missile and artillery barrage.
  6. Managerial and many others.

What is air defense?

  1. Objective - for turnover of particularly important objects.
  2. Zone - to ensure the protection of individual areas within which the objects are covered.
  3. Zonal-object - designed to combine the zonal air defense with a direct barrier of particularly important objects.


To date, air defense has become one of the most important components in a combined arms battle. This contributed to the world experience of wars.


In the summer of 1958, air defense of the ground forces was formed, and a little later one of them organized the Troops anti-aircraft turnover of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Until the end of 50's. The air defense forces of the SV were equipped with anti-aircraft artillery complexes and specially designed transported anti-aircraft missile complexes. At the same time, in order for the troops to reliably cover themselves up in combat, it was necessary to have highly effective and highly mobile air defense systems, due to the increased use of air attack capabilities.


The air defense forces of the ground forces, in addition to fighting tactical aircraft, also attacked combat helicopters, remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and strategic enemy aircraft.


In the middle of 70's The organization of the first generation of anti-aircraft missiles of the air defense forces has ended. Then the troops received modern air defense missiles and the already famous: “Cubes”, “Circles”, “Arrows-1 and 2”, “Osa-AK”, “Shilki”, new radars and other modern equipment at that time. Almost all aerodynamic targets were successfully hit by the created anti-aircraft missile systems, as a result of which they were often used during armed conflicts and local wars.


By that time, the latest developments of air attacks were actively developed and improved. These were strategic, tactical, operational-tactical missiles and high-precision weapons. But the weapons systems of the first generation of air defense forces could not provide building solutions to cover group forces from attacks with such weapons.

There was a need to create and use systemic approaches to arguing the classification and properties of second-generation weapons. It required the development of weapons systems, balanced according to the types and classifications of the targeted objects and the list of air defense missile systems combined into one control system equipped with radar reconnaissance, technical equipment and communications. And these weapons systems were created. In the 80-ies, air defense was provided with "Torahs", C-300В, "Arrows-10М2", "Bukami-М1", "Inglami", "Tunguskami" and the latest radar.


Changes took place in anti-aircraft missile-artillery and missile units, formations and units. They became mandatory components in combined arms formations, ranging from battalions and ending with front-line units, and in military districts they became a unified air defense system. This significantly increased the effectiveness of combat use in the groups of air defense troops of the military districts and provided the echeloned power of fire impact at heights and distances over the enemy with a high density of fire from anti-aircraft guns.

At the end of 90's To ensure better command, in the air defense forces of the air forces, military units, formations and congratulations of the air defense of the Coast Guard of the Navy, military units and air defense units of the Airborne Forces, military units and air defense units of the reserve of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief have undergone significant changes. As a result, they were united into a single military air defense of the RF Armed Forces.


What are the main tasks of military air defense?


Parts and formations of military air defense successfully solve tasks assigned to them on interaction with the means and forces of the Navy and Air Force.

In peacetime, military air defense perform the following tasks:

  • Measures to maintain air defense forces of military units, districts, subunits and units of the Coast Guard Navy, air defense units and units in combat readiness for advanced deployment and reflection, together with the means and forces of the air forces of the Russian Federation, attacks by air attacks.
  • Measures in depth to the depths, integrated protection from attacks by means of air attacks against enemies on military fronts (districts), groupings of troops and military installations throughout the depth of their operational constructions, interacting with means and forces of air defense and other arms and types of troops of the Armed Forces.
  • The sequence of increasing the combat strengths in the air defense units and formations performing missions on combat duty under the conditions of the highest degree of combat readiness.
  • Combat duty within the zone of action of military districts and in general air defense systems.
  • Protection measures, which include combined-arms units and formations, and units, units and units of the Navy Coast Guard, airborne units and formations, artillery in the form of groups and rocket troops, command posts, aviation aerodromes, the most important rear facilities in areas of concentration, with nominations , the occupations indicated by him, as well as during operations (b / actions).

Directions of development and improvement of air defense troops


At the present time, the air defense forces of the SV are the main and most numerous component of all the air defense forces of the Armed Forces. They are united by a hierarchical structure with the inclusion of corps (army), front air defense troops and air defense units, tank (motorized rifle) divisions, air defense units, motorized rifle brigades, tank regiments, battalions.


In military districts, air defense forces have air defense units, formations and subunits that have different anti-aircraft / missile systems / systems in terms of their potential and purpose.


They are united by intelligence and information complexes, as well as control complexes. Thus, in certain circumstances, this allows the formation of more advanced multifunctional air defense systems. To this day, the air defense of the Russian Federation is one of the best in the world.

The key areas in the development and improvement of military air defense systems in total include:


  1. Modernization in anti-aircraft missile systems and systems, reconnaissance systems with the aim of extending the service life, as well as their integration with the unified aerospace defense system in the state and in the Armed Forces, with empowering non-strategic anti-missile weapons during military operations.
  2. Improvement of organizational structures in the management bodies, units and air defense units, in accordance with the assigned tasks.
  3. Development and introduction of a single technical policy to reduce the types of military equipment, weapons, their unification and the exclusion of the likelihood of duplicates in the development.
  4. Provision of advanced air defense systems with modern means of communication, control, passive and other unusual types of intelligence, new-generation multipurpose anti-aircraft missile systems and ZRK complexes using the following criteria "effectiveness - cost - performance."
  5. Formation, preparation and provision of reserves for a flexible response to the strengthening of air defense force groups, changing circumstances, and compensating for the loss of personnel, military equipment and weapons.
  6. Conducting a complex of collective combat training of military air defense with other troops, taking into account the fulfillment of the assigned combat missions and features of the deployment areas, while concentrating the main efforts in the preparation of units, formations and subdivisions of air defense of high combat readiness.
  7. Improvements in the training of officers in the structure of the military training system, an increase in the level of their basic (fundamental) knowledge and practical training, as well as the sequence in the transition to the wrong military education.

It is expected that in the near future, the aerospace defense system will employ one of the main directions in the strategic defense of the state and in the Armed Forces, become one of the integral parts, and in the future it will become almost the main deterrent at the start of wars.


Air defense systems are one of the fundamental ones in the aerospace defense system. At present, units of military air defense systems are in a state of effective execution of tasks for anti-aircraft and non-strategic anti-missile defensive measures in groups of forces in various operational-strategic areas. As shown by tactical exercises using live firing, all means of military air defense of the Russian Federation can successfully hit cruise missiles.


Air defense systems in the East Kazakhstan Oblast and in the Armed Forces of the state grow in proportion to the increase in threats of air attacks. In solving the tasks of the aerospace defense, we will need an agreed overall use of different air defense and rocket-space defense forces in operational-strategic areas as the most effective than the individual. This will happen as a result of the possibility of uniting force together with the advantages of multiple weapons, as well as the mutual compensation of their weaknesses and shortcomings under a single command of force.

Improving air defense systems is impossible without the re-equipment of troops in military districts with modern air defense systems and air defense systems, the subsequent modernization of existing weapons, while supplying modern systems of automated control and communications.


Highlight the main directions in the development of air defense systems of Russia today:

  1. Create a new, more promising multi-functional weapons system of military air defense. Thus, there will be an impetus to create a flexible organizational and staff structure to perform specific combat missions. This system must be integrated with the main armaments of the ground forces and act in a comprehensive manner with the other types of troops in the course of solving various air defense tasks.
  2. Continue development work in order to create effective models of weapons that will have better performance. It is important that they could not be surpassed by foreign counterparts for ten to fifteen years.
  3. Introduce automated controls with artificial intelligence and robotization, in order to reflect the subsequent build-up of enemy capabilities and improve the effectiveness of combat use by air defense forces.
  4. Make extensive use of EW and passive location.
  5. Provide samples of air defense weapons with television systems, electron-optical devices, thermal imagers to ensure the combat capability of air defense systems and air defense systems in conditions of intense interference, which will reduce the dependence of air defense systems on the weather.
  6. Reorient the concept of the prospects for the development of weapons and military equipment of air defense, to carry out a significant modernization of existing weapons and military equipment in order to increase the effectiveness of combat use at relatively low cost.

Modern air defense systems and air defense missile systems in the Russian air defense forces


One of the main systems of air defense systems, which today are in service with air defense, is the C-300В system. It successfully hits aerial targets at a great distance - to 100 kilometers. But since the 2014 of the year, the C-300 GCALS has gradually begun to be replaced by a more advanced system - the C-300B4. The new system is improved in all respects. In essence, this is an improved modification of the C-300B, which has an increased range, a better design (improved protection against radio interference). Such a system more effectively affects different types of air circuits that appear within its range.


The next most popular one is Buk. Beginning with 2008, a modification of the complex called Buk-МХNUMX appeared for the arming of the air defense forces. Such an air defense missile system is capable of striking up to 2 targets simultaneously, and the range of defeat reaches 24 kilometers. With 200, the Buk-М2016 complex is in service. This is a system built on the basis of the "Buk-M3", but heavily modified.


No less well-known and effective air defense system is the complex "TOR". Beginning with 2011, a new modification of the air defense system TOR-M2U came into service. This modification has such differences from the base model:

  • she is capable of reconnaissance in motion;
  • capable of firing four air targets at the same time, ensuring full-length defeat.

Modern modification called "Top-2". Unlike the previous model of the “TOP” family, this modification has doubled the ammunition and can fire in motion, ensuring the absolute safety of troops on the march.


According to experts, Tor-M2 and the Pantsir anti-aircraft gun and missile system are the only vehicles in the world that can fire on the march. At the same time, a set of measures to protect the complex from interference was introduced in the Torah, which facilitates the crew’s combat mission.


The machine is able to automatically select suitable targets, and the military is left to simply issue the command “fire”. In part, the complex is able to deal with the fight against cruise missiles, although it is more effective against helicopters, attack aircraft and enemy drones.



In addition, armed with Russian air defense there are also portable anti-aircraft missile systems. The ease of learning and using this type of weapon makes it a significant problem for the enemy air forces. From 2014, in the air defense division, new PnNXXRK “Verba” began to enter service. Their use is relevant when you have to act with powerful optical interference, which impede the work of automatically high-power ADMS.


At present, the share of modern air defense systems in the Russian Air Defense Forces is about 40%. The latest Russian air defense systems have no analogues all over the world, and provide absolute protection against sudden air attacks.


The Russian Defense Ministry reported that to date, air defense is at the stage of rearmament. According to the forecasts of the military department, the arrival of the newest air defense systems will significantly increase the combat capabilities of the air defense system by the year 2020. According to the plans, the share of modern in military air defense should increase to 70% by 2020 year.


The main developers of air defense systems in our country are the Engineering Design Bureau and the NPO Almaz-Antey. The air defense system is divided among themselves according to many characteristics, but one of the main ones is the interception range of the enemy’s air target. There are complexes of small, medium and long range.

In 2016, the Buk-М3 anti-aircraft missile system entered the air defense system. This is the 4 generation of the Buk air defense system developed in the 1970s. It is used to defeat radio-contrast surface and ground, as well as maneuvering aerodynamic targets.


The air defense system provides shelling to 36 air targets simultaneously flying from different directions at speeds up to 3 km per second, from a distance from 2,5 km to 70 km and an altitude from 15 m to 35 km. As for the launcher, it can carry both six and twelve missiles in containers (9K317M and 9X316M respectively).


The Buk-М3 is equipped with two-stage solid-fuel anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М317М that can hit a target in conditions of active radio suppression from the enemy. To do this, the design provides 2 mode homing at the end points of the route.


Rocket flight speed (maximum) - 1700 meters per second. This allows the missile to hit virtually all types of operational-tactical aeroballistic and ballistic missiles.


This complex uses a unique rocket with an active head. It works on the principle of “fired and forgotten”, since the rocket has a homing target, which is extremely important in the conditions of radio suppression from the enemy. In addition, the updated complex "Buk" can track and apply fire to several targets simultaneously, which increases its effectiveness.


Technique of the future


Russian air defense systems do not stop improving in the conditions of new trends in the development of rocket and aircraft technology. Future-generation air defense systems will be more versatile and will be able to recognize even inconspicuous targets, as well as hit hypersonic missiles.


Experts note that the role of automation has increased significantly in military air defense. Thus, the tasks of the crew become easier, and errors are minimized. In addition, the principle of network-centrism (interagency interaction in the theater of operations within a single information field) is being introduced in the air defense forces.


The most effective means of defense will manifest itself when the common goal of control and interaction appears. This will bring the combat capabilities of the machines to a higher level - both in the implementation of the globally reconnaissance-information space and in the joint operations as part of a single system. Increased awareness and efficiency of command and overall coordination of the compounds.


Also, experts say that air defense systems are often used as an effective opposition to enemy ground targets. For example, the Shilka artillery complex has proven itself in the fight against heavy equipment of terrorists in Syria. In the future, a unit of military air defense may receive a more universal purpose and be used in the protection of important strategic sites.


When is Air Defense Day celebrated in Russia?


Air Defense Day is a great holiday in Russia, which is celebrated every year (the second Sunday in April). For the first time this holiday was determined by the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council in the Decree of February 20 of the year 1975. The holiday was established due to the merits of the Air Defense Forces during the Second World War. Also on air defense fall important tasks in peacetime.


Initially, it was celebrated on April 11, but in the fall of 1980, the holiday was postponed to celebrate it on April of every second Sunday.


The history of the establishment of the date of celebration is connected with the fact that in April, important government resolutions were adopted on the organization of the air defense of the state, which, in fact, became the main ones in the construction of air defense systems. They determined the organizational structure of the troops entering into the air defense, their formation and subsequent development.


Finally, it should be said that the role and importance of military air defenses as the threat of air attacks increases will only increase, which has been confirmed by time.

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