Ilyushin Il-12


Il-12 is a passenger plane for flights on medium-range airlines. In the international codification of the organization, NATO has the designation Coach, which in translation means "intercity bus". This machine was also designed in a cargo version, which allowed expanding its use. The machine is made in the scheme of an all-metal aircraft with two engines, which are located on the wings. The low-wing is equipped with piston engines and had a standard three-bearing chassis. For the first time, the Il-12 aircraft broke away from the runway in the middle of August 1945. When this liner appeared, there was no need to use such an aircraft as Li-2 on the airlines of the Soviet Union.

History of the IL-12

The new project of passenger aircraft under the designation Il-12 1943 was launched in the autumn of the year in the design Ilyushin bureau. The first study of the body allowed designers to calculate the occupancy 29 passengers in the cabin. The machine could fly 5 thousand kilometers at normal speed 400 km / h. Originally planned to equip the machine with four engine model M-88V, but were eventually selected diesel engines of type AH-31. When installing them changed the number of passenger seats in the cabin before 27. Also we decided to manufacture the fuselage leaking.


The sketch of the liner was ready in the beginning of autumn 44 year, after which they began to create an experimental model. The first flight in August 45 year was carried out under the supervision of testers V. Kokkinaki and K. Kokkinaki. In the course of further flights it became clear that the car requires significant modifications, the main problem was the power plant. This eventually led to the replacement of diesel engines for gasoline engines brand ASh-82FN. At the same time, the wing was adjusted for these settings. The testing of the Il-12 aircraft with new engines continued from January of the year 46. At the first departure, there was a strong shaking of the screws, which was decided by creating a new design of the screws and increasing their rigidity.


State tests of the unit took place in the late summer of 46 years, as a result of the quality of construction was confirmed and high performance characteristics. IL-12 was presented to the public in the same year, on parade in Tushino. Since October 46, the car was sent to the serial production of the Moscow Aviation Plant.

Design features of the IL-12

In addition to the passenger, it was designed and transport version, which had exactly the same hull design and the basic units. To control the machine took five crew members, among whom were two pilots, a radio operator, and navigator onboard mechanic.

The case was made with the help of beams and stringers where there 48 51 frames and stringers, which is attached to the machine cladding. In the forward cockpit section was located, which was for the luggage compartment. The cargo version of the IL-12 in the left side cargo door is large.


The wings consist of three spars and manufactured cantilever version. On each console, wing fairings installed. To control the machine in flight wings are equipped with slotted ailerons and flaps. The peculiarity of the wing is a system that provides heating and it does not frost up emu. All feathering IL-12 has a cantilever structure of the form.

chassis system consists of three pillars, which are removed in the middle of the body during the flight. On the main bearing is set on two wheels with brake systems. The front leg does not brake, but also has two wheels.


The aircraft is equipped with two types of engine AL-82FN, they are air-cooled and thus develop capacity in 1850 horsepower at takeoff. Gasoline, which is supplied with the engine, placed in ten fuel tanks with total capacity of 6 thousand liters. The appliance is fitted screws of a new design and are designated AB-9V the changing step in the flight.

IL-12 characteristics:

Modification   IL-12
Wingspan, m   31.70
Aircraft Length m   21.31
Height, m   7.80
Wing area, m2   103.0
Weight, kg  
  empty aircraft   11000
  maximum take-off   17250
Domestic fuel l   6500
engine's type   2 PD Shvetsov ASH-82FNV
Power, hp   X 2 1830
Maximum speed km / h  
  on high   407
  near the ground   366
Ferry range, km   3800
Practical range, km   2200
Practical ceiling, m   6700
Crew   4
Payload:   Passenger 27-32 or 2160 kg of cargo



OKB Ilyushin Aircraft

History oozes passenger has its origins in the middle of the 30's when SV Ilyushin decided to create civilian aircraft on the basis of experimental bomber TSKB26. The seemingly most inconvenient for the passenger theme time, the height of the Second World War, he was in 1943 KB start designing the plane, which was supposed to surpass all the characteristics of a ship as a reference 3 BC and its Soviet equivalent LEE 2.
But at the same time, Ilyushin foresaw that after the war, Aeroflot can not do without a new aircraft and very time began to work ahead of all potential competitors.
IL12 project was approved in January 1944 years, and soon began serial production of machinery.
But even after the launch of the aircraft in a series of KB constructors engaged its modernization, which significantly increase the comfort and safety of the aircraft.
The plane was built in the following versions:
IL12 vysokoplaner with engines ACh 31
IL12-32 for a short length of line.
IL12-6-version of the special purpose.
IL12T- tows landing planerYaK14
IL12D-troop - transport aircraft.
In general, after numerous improvements, the designers succeeded in creating a reliable liner. Its speed, range and comfort level were much higher than those of LIN2, but the Achilles' heel of the aircraft remained engines. Their overhaul life was 100 - 150 hours, that * Aeroflot * could fly in a month - one and a half. And if somewhere in the Central Directorate of GVF the problem was solved by frequent replacement of the engine, then it was impossible to get an * extra * new engine on the periphery. Therefore, very often during the initial period of operation the new Ilyes were idle, and unpretentious veterans of LI 2 continued to fly. Designers, of course, brought the engine to the requirements of peacetime. Its resource was increased first to 300, and then more hours, but the version of the 82 - T engine, which was already installed on IL14, became really reliable. As soon as the aircraft arrived in the GVF, IL12 was transferred to local airways where the machine was working Up to 1970 year.
In addition to work on the lines * Aeroflot * IL12 used in the Arctic and the Antarctic, where they repeatedly commit forwarding flights.


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