Russian air defense systems
Russian Air Defense Systems: Modern Views, Photos

Air defense forces of the Ground Forces are a separate branch of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation, which is intended to cover the troops and various objects from the destructive action of enemy air aids when conducting combined arms formations and operations, making on-site regroupings and locations.


The Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces (Military Air Defense Forces) and the Air Comic Forces (Air Defense Forces of the Country, Object Air Defense) have differences.


The air defense forces of the NE perform the following tasks:

  1. Combat duty on air defense.
  2. Air reconnaissance of the enemy and timely notification of covered troops.
  3. Joint missile defense.
  4. Destruction of air attack.


Structure of the Air Defense Forces


The structure of air defense is divided into:

  • Military air defense of the Armed Forces, which includes parts of the air defense of the SV, Airborne Forces, coastal Navy.
  • Air defense of the Aerospace Forces of the Russian Federation, covering the territory with important military objects (air defense-missile defense - anti-missile and air defense forces).

Beginning with the 1997 year, its own air defense, formed in the Air Force. The structure of these troops includes the air defense of the Ground Forces, whose task is to provide high-quality cover for military facilities and military units in the cantonment sites from a missile attack and an air enemy, as well as during regroupments and during battles.

defense shot

The ground defense of the Ground Forces is armed with various means of countering the enemy, which are capable of hitting targets at different heights:

  • greater than 12 km (in the stratosphere);
  • to 12 km (large);
  • to 4 km (medium);
  • to 1 km (small);
  • to 200 meters (extremely small).


According to the firing range, anti-aircraft weapons are divided into:

  • more 100 km - long range;
  • to 100 km - medium range;
  • to 30 km - short range;
  • to 10 km - short range.


Continuous improvement of the air defense forces consists in improving their mobility, expanding the capabilities of detecting and escorting the enemy, reducing the time spent on combat, overlapping defeat sectors for 100% destruction of attacking vehicles.

Red Square

In recent years, the likelihood of an attack using different types of armed drones has increased (the presence of bombs, rockets and mines on the suspension).


Since 2015, the Military Space Forces of the Russian Federation (VKS) has been formed, which include independent air defense and anti-missile defense forces. The main task of the new military formation is to oppose the attack of the enemy in the atmosphere and beyond to intercept the attacking, divided ballistic warheads and maneuverable cruise missiles to ensure the protection of the most important points in the Moscow region.


Brief history of the Russian Air Defense Forces


The beginning of the formation of military air defense units was the order of General Alekseev, commander-in-chief of the headquarters of the Supreme Commander from December 13 1915, which announced the formation of separate four-gun light batteries for firing at the air fleet. According to the order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation from February 9 2007 of the year - December 26 is the date of the creation of the military air defense.


In 1941, the air defense system of the USSR was divided into air defense systems of the country and the Troops.


In 1958, a separate type of force was created as part of the Ground Forces - the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces.


In 1997, troops formed the army air defense forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, as a result of the merger of the air defense forces of the Ground Forces, formations, military units and air defense units of the Coastal Forces of the Navy, and air defense units of the reserve of the Supreme Commander.


December 26 in the Armed Forces of Russia celebrates the day of military air defense.

air defense shot


We list the chiefs of the Air Defense Forces of the Land Forces and Air Defense of the RF Armed Forces

  • Chief of the Air Defense Forces of the Land Forces of the RF Armed Forces - Colonel-General B.I. - 1991-2000;
  • the initial Military Air Defense - Colonel-General Danilkin VB - 2000-2005;
  • Colonel-General N. A. Frolov, Chief of the Army Air Defense Forces - 2008-2010;
  • Major-General Krush MK, chief of the Army Air Defense Forces - 2008-2010;
  • Chief of Forces of the Ground Forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - Major General (from 2013, Lieutenant General) A. P. Leonov - 2010. Year to the present.


The Russian Federation is the only country in the world that has a layered, full-scale, integrated system of aerospace defense. The technical basis of the aerospace defense system is the anti-missile and air defense systems and complexes designed to solve a variety of tasks: from tactical to operational-strategic. Technical indicators of the complexes and systems of aerospace defense provide a reliable cover for troops, important industrial facilities, government, transport and energy.


According to experts, anti-aircraft missile systems and complexes are the most sophisticated military vehicles. In addition to radio and laser equipment, they are equipped with special tools that carry out air reconnaissance, tracking and guidance.


Antey-2500 C-300

According to experts, this is the only mobile anti-aircraft missile defense system in the world. She is able to intercept even a ballistic missile, designed for medium and short range. In addition, the target of the "Anthea" can even become an invisible aircraft Staelth. The system destroys an object using 2 or 4 9М83 anti-aircraft missiles. 3RS produced at the concern "Almaz-Antey" for parts of the air defense of Egypt, Venezuela and Russia. Before 2015, they were produced for export to Iran.

Antey-2500 C-300


ZRS C-300B

The Z-300V is a military self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system. Equipped with two types of missiles: 9М82 and 9М83. The first are used to destroy ballistic Pershing, SRAM aircraft missiles and far-flying aircraft. The latter destroy the air vehicles and ballistic missiles P-17 "Lance" and "Scud".


Autonomous SAM "Tor"

This system got its name in honor of the Scandinavian god. It was designed to cover vehicles, infantry, buildings and important industrial sites. According to experts, "Thor" is able to protect against precision weapons, guided bombs and unmanned aerial vehicles. The system is considered autonomous, as it can independently control the airspace, determine and shoot down an air target.


“Osa” air defense missile system, MD-PS, “Tunguska” and “Sosna-RA”

This air defense system went to the Russian Federation and other CIS countries in the heritage from the USSR. The main purpose of the "Wasps": helicopters, airplanes, cruise missiles and drones. In Soviet times, the system was successfully used in 1960 years. Protection of ground forces "Osa" provided in the event that the aircraft is designed for medium and low altitude.


A distinctive feature of the MD-PS anti-aircraft missile system is the possibility of its hidden work. For this task, the air defense system was equipped with optical means, with the help of which the MD-PS, using infrared radiation, detects it and induces a missile defense system. The main advantage of the complex is that due to the circular review, it is able to simultaneously identify up to fifty goals. Then from among them are selected a few, which are the most dangerous. Then there is their destruction. When aiming a gun, the principle of “shot and forget” is applied. The missile is equipped with self-guided heads that can independently see the target.


Anti-aircraft gun missile system "Tunguska" provides air defense in the near radius. Since the attack aircraft and helicopters, mainly operate at low altitudes, the Tunguska successfully copes with them. Thus, in battle, reliable infantry cover is provided. In addition, the purpose of this air defense system can be floating military and lightly armored ground equipment. If there is no fog or snow, then the "Tunguska" can shoot both in motion and from a place. The air defense missile system is equipped with 9М311 rockets. For the complex, anti-aircraft guns 2А38 are additionally provided, which operate at an angle of 85 degrees.

SAM "Osa"

SAM "Osa"


Sosna-RA is a lightweight mobile towed anti-aircraft missile system. He destroys aerial targets at an altitude of up to three thousand meters. Compared with “Tunguska”, “Sosna-RA” is equipped with a hypersonic rocket 9М337, which can shoot down an enemy object at an altitude of 3,5 kilometer. The range varies from 1300 to 8000 meters. As a result of the fact that Sosna-RA has a relatively small weight, it can be transported on any platform. The Russian military most often transport the complex with Ural-4320 and KAMAZ-4310 trucks.


CRAFT "Buk" and modifications

Since 1970, the Soviet army has also had this complex. Currently, this anti-aircraft missile system is in service with Russia and is listed in the technical documentation as 9K37 "Buk". The complex includes the following components:

  • command post 9 with 470;
  • fire installation 9А310;
  • charging installation 9А39;
  • station to detect the target 9C18.


Parts of the complex are installed on conventional tracked platforms that are characterized by high maneuverability. The Buk shoots 9М38 anti-aircraft missiles. According to military experts, using such an air defense missile system, you can hit an air target at an altitude of up to 18 km and a distance from the system to 25 km. In this case, the probability of an exact hit - 0,6. After upgrading, they created a new air defense system, Buk-М1. If we compare it with the analog, then this option has a greater probability of destruction and an increased zone. In addition, in the "Buk-M1" there is a function that allows you to recognize a flying object. The new model is much more protected from anti-radar missiles. The main purpose of the ZRK is to shoot down helicopters, airplanes, enemy drones and cruise missiles.


In 1980 There is a new version - 9М317, shooting modern missiles. The use of 9М317 required engineers to make improvements in the design of the complex. A rocket with smaller wings and an increased range at an altitude of 25 km. The main advantage of 9М317 is that its fuse operates in 2 modes. When in contact with a rocket or at a certain distance from it, the target will be destroyed. Self-propelled fire installation has new equipment, so that it detects 10 targets at the same time and can eliminate four of them, which it considers the most dangerous.

COOK "Buk"

COOK "Buk"


In order to completely replace outdated electronics with modern digital equipment, military engineers developed the Buk-М3 air defense system. Replaced and the rocket itself. Now the shooting is carried out modern 9М317М, which has high characteristics. Despite the fact that there is no specific information about this complex so far, experts assume that it is possible to knock down a flying object at a height greater than 7000 meters from such a range of missiles, with a probability of getting 0,96.


Latest Russian air defense systems

The Russian military can intercept an air target at a great distance (from 200 kilometers) by means of the Triumph C-400 anti-aircraft missile system. This ZRK entered service in the 2007 year. The complex was created specifically to provide protection in case of a probable attack from both space and air. According to experts, C-400 is able to destroy the target at a height of no more than 30 thousand meters.


In 2012, a new anti-aircraft missile system - the C1 armor was launched. With the help of guided missiles and automatic guns, for which radio command guidance is provided, radar and infrared tracking, the target is destroyed, wherever it is. The ZRPK has twelve ground-to-air missiles and two anti-aircraft guns.


The latest Russian novelty is considered to be the Pine air defense missile system, which operates in the near radius. According to experts, this complex is designed for fragmentation-rod and armor-piercing effects. Missiles can destroy enemy armored vehicles, ships and fortifications. The air defense system is effective in the complex in the fight against precision weapons, UAVs and cruise missiles. For guidance used laser: missiles flying on the beam.


Distribution in Russia

At present, the structure of the air defense of the Russian Federation is represented by 34 regiments, C-300, C-300PS, C-400 anti-aircraft missile systems and others. Not so long ago, two brigades from the CD and the Air Force were transformed into regiments and converted into air defense. So, the composition of this military kind includes shelves (38) and divisions (105).


According to experts, the distribution of air defense forces in Russia is uneven. Moscow has the most reliable protection. Around this city are ten regiments having C-300. Near Moscow, four more divisions, armed with C-400.


Saint Petersburg is also well covered - four regiments with C-300 and C-400. The SF bases in Murmansk, Polyarny and Severomorsk are guarded by three regiments, the Pacific Fleet in the Vladivostok and Nakhodka areas covers two regiments. One regiment guards Avachinsky Bay in Kamchatka (base of SSBN). The Baltai Fleet and the Kaliningrad Region cover the mixed regiment from the air, which is armed with the C-300 and C-400 systems. Air defense is in the Crimea. In order to provide more reliable protection of the Black Sea Fleet, the command decided to strengthen the Sevastopol air defense grouping with additional C-300 complexes. Russia's air defense has radar stations, which we will describe in more detail later.


Radar П-15 и П-19

With the help of these air defense systems of the Russian Federation low-flying targets are identified. They are in service with the 1955 year. These radars complete artillery, radio and anti-aircraft formations, points of management and operational units of air defense. The station is transported using one vehicle with a trailer. Radar produce deployments within ten minutes. The station operates in coherent-pulse and amplitude modes.

Radar P-15

Radar P-15


Through the radar P-19 carry out reconnaissance at medium and low altitudes. Then the information received is transmitted to the command post. This radar is a mobile two-coordinate radar station for the transport of which use two cars. The first is used to transport indicator, transceiver equipment, means to protect against interference, while the second is an antenna-turning device and units that provide power to the system.


Radar P-18

With the help of this upgraded station detect aircraft. Determine their coordinates, and then issued a goal. According to experts, at the moment the operational resource of such air defense systems of the Russian Federation has exhausted itself. In order to extend and improve tactical and technical characteristics, an assembly complex with a resource of at least 20 years and wear and tear of no more than 12 years is used for modernization. So, they change the outdated P-18 element base of modern, tube transmitting devices - with solid-state ones. In addition, radars are equipped with systems with digital processes that process the signal and suppress active noise interference. As a result of numerous works, the equipment in this radar is not so much voluminous. In addition, the system has become more reliable, with improved performance and accuracy characteristics and more protected from interference.


Radar P-40A

It is a radar rangefinder, which is listed in the technical documentation as "Armor" 1RL128. This air defense system is aimed at performing the following tasks:

  • identifying air targets;
  • antennas are derived to the target automatically and calculate the height to it;
  • determines the azimuth and slant range;
  • built-in "friend-foe" program determines the state ownership of the object.

Radar P-40A

Radar P-40A


The complex is equipped with radio engineering units and formations of anti-air defense, anti-aircraft artillery and missile units. The design of "Armor" - antenna-feeder. The location of the equipment, components and ground-based radar interrogator is the self-propelled tracked chassis 426U. It also provides space for two gas turbine units, which provide power to the system.



To identify enemy targets in the airspace, they use a two-coordinate radar operating in standby mode. The system is represented by a mobile coherent pulse station. 4 vehicles are transported, namely 3 vehicles and 1 trailers. On the first machine transported transceiver, indicator equipment and tools that carry out automatic removal and transmission of information. The second car is designed to carry an antenna-turning device, and the third for a diesel power station. On the trailer there is a place for the antenna-turning device HP3. Go to the radar system are mating cables and 2 remote indicator with a circular view.

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