MiG-105 is an experimental aircraft for orbital flights. A feature of the machine was also the fact that he was the manager of the pilot. This unit has been designed in the design office of Mikoyan during the active development of the program "Spiral".

The history of the MiG-105

At the end of the year 1965 orbital program within the Council of Ministers issued a decree on the establishment of a machine that could produce flying in orbit. This aircraft was controlled pilot and was moving at subsonic speeds, making it difficult to perform this task. A special feature was the fact that the machine had to be put into orbit by a rocket-type P-7.


After the end of the design and manufacturing of aircraft ground tests have been initiated since December 75 years. Flight tests began in the autumn of 1978 years. The first launch of the MiG-105 was carried off the plane Tu-95 and ended in the accident. When planting was heavily damaged chassis and body orbital plane.

Design features of the MiG-105

The device is made MiG-105 the type of "tailless". The scheme was to design the most effective to provide flight to orbit the planet. The aircraft has a low wing, single-fin tail car. The aircraft was equipped with a single engine, which has been placed at the bottom of the tail section. With regard to aircraft landing gear, it was represented by four legs. Aircraft of this type of housing swept different angle sweep was 78 percent. The upper part of the body was rounded, and the bottom was completely flat.


With regard to aircraft parts, they had four. The bow section was designed for on-board equipment, this was posted cockpit. The second section is a farm and its frame. As to the third compartment, then it was located panel on which are mounted an air intake TRD. The fourth section was presented heat resistant screen which is located under the hood.

Farm MiG-105 in its design reminiscent of a farm on the American plane X-20. It had a frame, which has been welded. It was made of high-strength steel grade VNS-2. The design of the farm has been well thought out, whereby it takes up little space, allowing, in turn, a more compact power plant and place the other equipment of the aircraft. In addition, designers have been taken into account the thermal load, which could adversely affect the pilot.

MiG-105 dashboard

At the bottom of the Central Division of the fuel tanks were deployed, they were an integral part of the power circuit of the farm. The tail part of the machine was equipped with an air intake, which had adjustable louvers for the air supply to the engine. Department equipment and the cockpit were lining sheets of metal together, they were bolted. In this way, this design has formed a rescue capsule for the pilot. The pilot of the MiG-105 could get in only through the cabin hatch in the top of the machine.

The screen installed in the bottom of the airplane shielded the unit from heating during flight and was a bearing surface. The screen was also made of sheet metal, which was connected by welded seams. For greater reliability and strength of the structure, metal profiles were used. The inside of the screen has a thermo-insulating material. The peculiarity of this screen is that it is fixed to the body with the help of freely oriented tanders. This allows you to remove the voltage from the metal when it overheats. In addition, the designers have devised a system for removing stress and deformation of the metal with uneven heating. Most of the panels of the device are removable, which allows more free access to the aircraft units.


The wings of the MiG-105 have a swept shape, the sweep angle is 55 percent. Like in other aircraft, the wings are attached to the body of the car. But their main difference is that they can turn to a significant angle, namely up to 30 degrees up. This was done in order to make flights on different modes. The rotation of the wing is carried out using an automatic electric drive system. As for the feathering of the aircraft, it was made in arrow-shaped form. The feathers are tail keel and elevator rudders, balancers were installed on the top of the aircraft. All control of the aircraft was completely mechanical and was carried out using a standard airplane handle and pedals.

Chassis MiG-105 consists of four pillars on which were fastened skis, but the initial flight test stands were equipped with wheels to take off from the airfield. All racks are cleaned in the middle of the cabinet. Chassis release provides pneumatic system of the aircraft.


In the photo the numbers denote: 

  1. forward fuselage

  2. left front landing gear

  3. right front landing gear

  4. chassis plates

  5. aft fuselage

  6. right wing

  7. left outer wing

  8. fairings wing panels

  9. keel and rudder

  10. right rear landing gear

  11. rear left landing gear

  12. heat shield

  13. bracing the joint head

  14. rear fuselage


The power plant unit MiG-105 was represented by a jet engine development Kolesov, designated as RD36-35K. He weighed in 176 kilos while providing power to the car 2000 kgs. Fuel unit has been placed in the tank, which is located in the center section of the machine. For the MiG-105 500 stock of fuel in liters it was enough only for 10 minutes flight at full thrust. This engine allows you to perform off from the airfield without starting the aircraft.

MiG-105 Video

The aircraft of this model was equipped with a standard set of avionics and navigation devices, which are placed in the cockpit.

MiG-105 characteristics:

  • Crew: 1 people

  • Length: 8 m (8,5 m subsonic equivalent)

  • Wingspan: 7,4 (6,4) m

  • Height: 3,5 m

  • Wing area:

  • Empty weight: 10300 kg (4220)

  • Engines: TRD RD-36-35K

  • Maximum Thrust: 2350 kgs (2000)

  • Maximum speed at the ground: 250-280 km / h


The euphoria from the fact of man's conquest of the cosmos in the military circles quickly became alarmed. To the water, land and air, an unknown near-Earth space was added, from which it was now possible to expect an attack (however, the possibility of pre-emptive strike was also not excluded). Therefore, the question was raised on the design of the AKS (aerospace systems), the theoretical foundations of which were laid by F. Zander. One of the developments, which reached the stage of creating full-scale samples, was the "Spiral" project. The principle consisted in that the reusable space vehicle with the aid of a carrier was transported to an intermediate thirty-kilometer height, then "by its own" reached a near-earth orbit, carried out a mission, for example, destroyed enemy satellites, and landed. Designing of such an aircraft was entrusted to the OKB AI. Mikoyan, and the first step was the production of a subsonic sample, called MiG-105. A small aircraft of the "tailless" type had a swept fuselage of a welded truss structure, a triangular rotary wing and a four-legged chassis. He made both independent flights and starts from the carrier (Tu-95K aircraft) with an independent landing. The flight life of MiG-105 ended in an accident, and the entire project was soon recognized as unpromising. Now the only analogue of the Soviet spacecraft is stored in the Air Force Museum.


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