Tupolev Tu-80


The great merit of the Soviet aircraft building 40-ies assigned TU-4, copied from an American bomber B-29. But the aircraft with a range of 6000 km to carry out combat missions only in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. But the plans of the Soviet Union was to create a long-range strategic bomber capable of reaching the United States and back.

This proposal was received by A. Tupolev Design Bureau in connection with the possibility of war with the Americans and the construction of the atomic bomb in the USSR. We needed a carrier. The first step towards this plane was Tu-80. Work began in 1948 year. It was a deep modernization of the Tu-4 a reworked layout, removing shortcomings in the fuselage, reinforced arms and improved aerodynamics.

The bomber "eightieth" was a four-engine mid-plane with a keel crest, a large keel and an elongated trapezoidal wing. The wing is formed by a double bend in the chord plane. The fuselage is of circular section. Three-axle chassis with a nose rack. In comparison with the basic model, the front hermachine was changed, taking advantage of the experience with the Tu-70 design. Thanks to this visibility for the pilots has greatly improved. The fuselage itself was extended by 4 meter together with the cargo compartments. The range of bomb weapons was also increased, and defensive weapons were changed (guns B-20 on HP-23).


The engineers carried out a complex of works to improve the streamlining of the protruding parts (rifle units and radome fairings). The radar bomber sight "Cobalt" was modified with the mounted prefix "Cesium". As a result, the installation was renamed into Rubidium. Instead of the anti-icing of the "Goodrich" wing socks, more efficient thermal ones were installed. At 15% increased the capacity of fuel tanks. According to the plan, they planned to install such REO on the airplane: the radionavigation apparatus Meridian and Materik, the ARK-5 radio compass, the Barium and Magnesium identification systems, the Cadmium shooting radar sight, the NAFNA-3S night aerial photograph and the RSB- 5.

Place the radio operator was organized in front of the cabin, eventually simplify the interaction of the whole crew. The navigator-bombardier-navigator and navigator were placed at the head of aircraft. Updated speed layout sharper bow has been extended by three meters, which in turn has corrected many flaws review of the basic Tu-4.

Designers at project paid much attention to improve the aerodynamics of the aircraft. All four gondolas Tu-80 1,9 decreased by m2. The upper front tower was completely retracted, and the lower and upper installations were drowned in the fuselage due to a small reduction in the angles of firing. Instead of round elliptical blisters, sighting posts made lateral and in the same way mounted into the fuselage. The radar antenna "Cobalt" was installed in the fairing under the forward cabin. This further minimized the aerodynamic drag. During the research, it was revealed that the "petal" review is suitable for conducting a combat mission. As a result, many other aircraft of different classes installed similar fuselage surveys.


To improve aerodynamics, other changes were applied. Reduced the angle of the transverse B-shaped wing, lengthened its sock, increased the span of the flaps. Constructed new stabilizer fins and wings, new locks on fuselage joints, increased the area of ​​the keel and trims of the rudders. The power plant was based on 4 modified engine АШ-73ТКФН with takeoff power 2720 hp, and nominal - 2360 hp. Thanks to a special injection, the engines were more economical. In the sum of improved aerodynamics, increased volume of fuel tank, modified engines and installation of new screws AB-16, it was possible to achieve an increase in the flight range by 30-35% (up to 8200 km) than the base model Tu-4.

Much attention was taken defensive weapons modernization Tu-80. Instead of guns B-20 20 mm caliber installed NA-23 23 mm caliber with a larger second volley of each tower. Also increased the volume of the bomb bay. The front was lengthened to 380 mm, rear - on 400 mm. This succeeded in diversifying the range bombs. It is now possible to install in the internal bomb FAB-9000.

Also changed and the target aircraft equipment. On Tu-80 appeared a completely new thermal anti-icing system. She has worked in the warm air, which appeared due to special kerosene stoves. Then such a system for deicing aircraft used in virtually all projects OKB. Changes only source of heat.

Officially took up rebuild of the old Tu-4 a new Tu-80 1948 year in July. And exactly one year had planned to pass it on state tests. Draft project was completed in November and a few months later started production of working drawings. Draft project together with the ready-made layout of the Tu-80 submitted for verification commission. However, it was delayed due to some arrangements are not satisfied with the representatives of the Air Force. Only at the end 1949, it was decided to take the plane.


In parallel, the Commission carried out a verification of the construction of the prototype. Therefore, by the end of the year 49 OP was ready. However, in September, the Design Bureau received information about inappropriate bomber for the Red Army. The reason was the lack of range of the aircraft. As a result, they concluded that the state tests for the plane will not allow. Tupolev still insisted on continuing the work, and the first of December piloted by F. Opadchiy aircraft first took to the sky. Then Tu-80 transferred to LII, where test pilot Alexander Yefimov has made it 30 test flights (29 5 hours, minutes).

Tu-80 had a big disadvantage compared to the baseline Tu-4. During the subsequent flight tests we have noticed that the alignment of the aircraft moved forward and shoulders management mechanisms are the same. Attempted compensation, decided to increase the control surfaces. But the attempt failed, so the tail of the aircraft established a weight 900 kg.

There were also minor changes in bomb armament and equipment availability. The sad end of the promising Tu-80 aircraft came at a military training ground as a target. But this aircraft, although it did not become a production model, was a unique step towards the transition to the Tu-85 bomber, which had a flight range of 11-000 km.

Tu-80 characteristics:

Modification   Tu-80
Wingspan, m   43.45
Length m   34.32
Height, m   9.04
Wing area, m2   167.00
  empty aircraft  
  normal takeoff   51500
  maximum take-off  
Fuel kg   to 16500
engine's type   4 PDAH-73ТКФН
Power, hp  
  flight   X 4 2000
  takeoff   X 4 2400
Maximum speed km / h  
  near the ground   428
  on high   545
Practical range, km   7000
Practical ceiling, m   11200
Crew   11
Armament:   up to 12000 kg bombs


Tu-80 video:



Tu-80 - it's a great aircraft, which made very contribution to aeronautics USSR. I believe that this aircraft, which can fly 6000 km without refueling breaks and do not close. Although if the government did that, then they know better. It may have been loss-making, or were serious errors in the design, in general, it is not ours.
Engineers who worked on the creation of the Tu-80, tried hard and would not allow any mistakes. They did not want anything to prevent what has already been admitted earlier in other models of the Tu. A lot of attention as I know, was given to the improvement of technical and flight characteristics. They modified the engine to significantly different, at least from the Tu-70. And it's very good that engineers and designers so serious about this business. After all, after the creation was complete, the Tu-80 was excellent and very different from previous models with their characteristics.
Also, do not forget about the arms. Because of him, too, a great job and it's not surprising, because as I noted in the previous Tu of fluff was not. This aircraft was designed for military action, and therefore, the weapons should be fine.

I hope everyone here understands that Tu-80 is not entirely new plane, and an improved model of the fourth. In fact, nothing has changed. Only increased the wings, some systems and armament. Bombers one to one, only this distance increased by interest 20. I do not understand why it was called a purely new aircraft? Yet, too. The model is the same, the same housing schemes compared with the guys, and there is almost everything fits. No, I can understand, the system changed and something added navigation, well, wings and arms? This is a modernization.

I really like this plane. But certainly not for its characteristics, but because of the continuation. I'm talking about the Tu-90 - one of the best creations of Tupolev. He will replace L in the history of aircraft manufacturing all piston copies. A eighties, he, as well, without the lower leg which leg will not function. Machine sorry. On range shot like a pig.