the speed of the aircraft
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What is the speed of the aircraft? What is the speed of flight?

What is the speed of the aircraft? What is the speed of flight?

The speed of the aircraft has been and remains a very important factor of his, which allows not only more comfortably move between cities, regions or countries, but also makes the flight time as fast as possible.

The first civilian aircraft, "Ilya of Murom" had airspeed just 105 kilometers per hour, this limit today could easily be overcome to a conventional car, and in some cases at the international bus and therefore, comfortable such movement can not be called.

With regard to conventional passenger planes, their airspeed It has already exceeded 500 kilometers per hour, and is not the limit, but as it turns out, and this is far from the real comfort.

flight speed

Modern passenger aircraft lost pleasure to fly at supersonic speeds, and, with it had very good reasons are the following factors:

  • Reliability. When flight at supersonic speeds, the plane has to be streamlined as much as possible, and as you know, the longer the aircraft, the more difficult to achieve. Otherwise, the plane when it reaches supersonic speeds can literally fall to pieces, which naturally is unsafe and can carry disastrous consequences.

  • Cost. Essentially, supersonic aircraft have low fuel economy, and hence they are low cost much more expensive than slower airliners.

  • Narrow specialization. Under this factor should be understood that not every airport will be able to afford to take a supersonic airliner because of its large mass and speed, that is, need more runway.

  • Frequent maintenance. In view of the fact that the aircraft moves to the superfast speeds. It is necessary to constantly maintain, that is, almost after every flight to check the condition of the fuselage, rivet fastening, etc., which also carries a number of inconveniences for air carriers.

If the speed of modern aircraft of civil aviation is about 800 kilometers per hour, then the supersonic passenger aircraft, it was more than 2100 kilometers per hour, which is more than 2.5 times faster than today's air travel. However, referring mainly to security, to date there is no existing supersonic passenger airliners, which just something in the history of civil aviation, there were two - a Soviet Tu-144 and the Anglo-French "Concorde".

aircraft speed 2

It is possible that in the near future, we will again observe supersonic aircraft in the sky, and it is worth noting a number of aircraft manufacturers and design offices working on this issue. However, to expect any innovations in the next few years it is not necessary, if only because of the fact that the important factor remains the safety of passengers, the speed of the aircraft It counted only then.

It is known that different models of aircraft have different flight speed. Thus, combat attack aircraft have significantly higher speed performance than the devices of civil aviation.

Speed ​​performance of passenger airliners

  • Tu-134 a passenger liner for short-haul flights. The maximum number of passengers on board - 96 people. Cruising speed of the machine is 850 km / h.

  • Tu-154 designed for medium-haul flights at. On board may be up to 180 passengers. This cruising speed of the machine is 950 km / h.

  • Tu-204 - Medium-range airliner, which can carry up to 214 passengers on board. Optimal speed flight is 850 km / h.

  • «Sukhoi Superjet-100"Operated on routes with low loading. Salon can accommodate 98 people, and has a cruising speed record in 830 km / h.

  • IL-62 It provides transportation of passengers over long distances. Ekonomvariant cabin can accommodate 198 people. Normal cruising speed is the speed at 850 km / h.

  • IL-86 - Great liner for medium-range flights. On board can be the maximum number of passengers in 314 people. Despite its large size, it has a cruise speed of 950 km / h.

  • IL-96 a plane with long flight and is designed to carry 300 passengers in economy class. The optimum speed is 900 km / h.

  • Airbus A310 manufactured in various models, allowing you to use the machine on the lines of different length. The standard for this machine is the number of passengers in the 183 and 858 performance speed km / h.

  • Airbus A320 - This machine can perform the carriage of passengers on medium range flight, with a cruising speed of 853 km / h. The aircraft can accommodate 149 passengers.

  • Airbus A330 It made for long flights with a maximum number of passengers on board to 398 people. When the flight cruising speed is 925 km / h.

  • Boeing-747 It has a cruising speed in 917 km / h. The machine is able to perform long-range transport to 298 people.

  • Boeing-777 also makes long flights, but the number of passengers in the cabin reaches economical option only 148 people, and the optimum airspeed indicator is in 891 km / h.

Boeing-777

Boeing-777

Nevertheless passenger planes have low maximum speed and cruising flight, although there are exceptions to the rule. For example, the aircraft "Concorde" or Tu-144 boast high-speed performance. Most recently, the corporation "Boeing" announced the creation of a new high-speed passenger system, which had previously been baptized as a Zehst. The plans of the company's management and designers to bring the speed of this model to 5029 km / h.

The highest speed of flight have a new war machines that reach supersonic speeds.

The fastest supersonic aircraft

  • MiG-17 - Nominal speed of flight is 861 km / h. Despite the fact that it's not so great figure, this did not prevent the shock of becoming the most common car in the world.

  • Bell X-1 - this aircraft was developed in the United States. He made his first flight back in 1947 year. This flight was able to produce acceleration of the machine up to speed in 1541 km / h. At the moment this is the only car in the museum in the United States.

  • North X-15 had a rocket engine, but unlike the previous model, it is the maximum accelerated to speed 6167 km / h. The flight was carried out in 1959 year. There were created three such apparatus, which have been studying the upper atmosphere and its reaction to the entry into its winged bodies.

  • Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird - a military intelligence officer, who can reach speeds of 3700 km / h. He was in service in the United States to 1998 years.

  • MiG-25 It could reach speeds of up to 3000 km / h. The machine features high flying and fighting characteristics. In 1976, the Soviet pilot stole one such machine in Japan, where it made a detailed study.

  • MiG-31 first broke away from the runway 1975 years, the interceptor can fly at speeds of Mach or 2,35 2500 km / h.

  • F-22 Raptor - US military aircraft production. It belongs to the generation of aircraft 5. Cruising speed of the machine is 1890 km / h and a maximum reach 2570 km / h.

  • Su-100 is a shock scout. Although the design had many options for its use. But still it is very fast and can fly at speeds in 3200 km / h.

  • XB-70 - this plane is so fast that during the first tests it was disrupted airflow 60 centimeters edge. Currently there is only one such machine, and that the museum USA. It managed to disperse up to speed 3187 km / h.

  • Tu-144 It was created in response to the made in Britain "Concord" in 1960-ies. It has a top speed of up to 2500 km / h. Were built 16 such machines are currently not in use.

  • Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde - it is the passenger unit, which is actively used in the air transport passengers. Its cruising speed is 2150 km / h, while the maximum - 2330 km / h. With 2003 year is not used.

Currently, the most developed countries of the world are actively working on the creation of new generation aircraft, which should have even better flight performance.

Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde

Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde

Consider the concept of the speed of the aircraft with the physical side:

Speed. Speed ​​of motion of a body (including the aircraft) is the ratio of the length of the path traversed by the time during which the body passes this way. If movement occurs at a variable rate, it is possible to consider the average speed on a certain track section and movement speed at this time. In order to determine the speed at the moment must be taken sufficiently small time intervals. The smaller the time interval is taken, the more accurate will be determined by the speed at the moment.

The technique adopted to measure the speed in meters per second (m / s) and in kilometers per hour (km / h). In order to speed expressed in meters per second, converted to kilometers per hour, multiply the speed at 3,6.

For example, the speed of sound at an altitude of m 8 000 308 m / sec or 308 X 3,6 = 1108,8 1109 x km / h.

The true speed. The speed at which the aircraft is moving relative to air, called the true airspeed, or Vu.

True speed determines the amount of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft.

In the absence of true wind speed is the same as the ground speed - the speed of the aircraft relative to the ground.

Indicated airspeed. In aeronautical engineering is widely used speed detection using the difference between the measurement of total and static air pressure. Receiver full pressure is a special nozzle (tube) fitted on the airplane (for example TA-156). Static pressure is generally supplied to the intake unit of which is a fitting hole in one point of the fuselage. Speed ​​measured in this way is called airspeed mgmt.

Retrograde that the decrease in the density of air at a constant true airspeed will be accompanied by a decrease in the velocity head and, consequently, a decrease in airspeed.

The rate is not perfectly accurate tool. In his testimony is necessary to introduce an amendment instrumental B Receiver static pressure also is not ideal - on the measurement of the pressure affects the air pressure disturbance at the location of the receiver.

The vertical axis lies in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft and is directed toward the upper surface of the wing. The high-speed system O y axis is perpendicular to the axis O *. The coupled system axis is perpendicular to the basis.

The transverse axis is directed toward the right wing.

The angle between the direction of the flow velocity and the plane of the wing chord is called the angle of attack as well.

The angle between the direction of the flow velocity and the plane of symmetry of the aircraft called a grazing angle.

Overload n is the dimensionless ratio, which shows how many times the sum of all forces acting on the body (except gravity) is greater than body weight. If an overload is zero, it means that the body acts only unbalanced force of gravity, and the sum of the remaining forces is zero.

Speed ​​helicopters

Speaking of the high-speed characteristics of the aircraft, not to mention helicopters. Due to the large number of manufacturers and building schemes have different performance speeds.

Speed ​​helicopters depends on a huge number of parameters. The most compelling are the weight of the unit, the number of rotors and the number of motors which drive screws.

Speed ​​characteristics of civil helicopters

  • Mi-26T has the ability to accelerate to 270 km / h, with regard to cruising speed, it is equal to 255 km / h. The unit is equipped with two 10 engines with thousands of horsepower. Such powerful engines provide easy lifting of the machine with a maximum mass, which is 56 tons.

  • Ka-32A11BC - this civilian helicopter can be accelerated to a speed of 260 km / h, and the cruising flight of the vehicle takes place at a speed of 200 km / h with a maximum flight range. Maximum take-off weight is 11 tons.

  • Mi-8 / 17 has a maximum speed equal to 250 km / h, while cruising takes place at speed 230 km / h. The take-off mass is 13 tons. The power plant is represented by two engines, whose power is equal to 2 thousands of horsepower each.

  • Ka-62 makes cruising at a speed of 290 km / h and a top speed up slightly and is 308 km / h. Low differences in the speed parameters can be explained by a small rise in the maximum mass 6,5 tons and that the machine has one engine capacity of 1,7 thousand horsepower.

  • Ansat is a light civilian helicopter with a maximum lift weight in 3,6 tons. Cruising speed in flight is 250 km / h and maximum 275 km / h. The helicopter has two engines that take off 1260 horsepower during takeoff.

  • The Mi-38 has a cruising speed of 285 km / h, with a maximum take-off mass equal to 16,2 tons. When taking off, the power plant, consisting of two engines, gives power to the 5 of thousands of horsepower.

  • The Ka-226 is a small civilian helicopter with a maximum flight speed of 250 km / h. Cruising takes place at a speed of 220 km / h. The device can rise into the air with a mass of 3,6 tons. The rise provides two engines powering 580 horsepower.

Speed ​​characteristics of military helicopters

  • Mi-171A2 has a top speed of 280 km / h cruising speed runs on 260 km / h. Take-off is possible with a maximum weight of the machine in 13 tons. The helicopter has a single engine with a capacity of 2,7 thousand horsepower.

  • Ka-52 known as the "Alligator" is equipped with two engines of 2,4 thousand horsepower, which allows to develop the maximum speed of the machine 300 km / h. With regard to the cruising speed, it is 260 km / h.

  • Mi-28N "Night Hunter" can reach speeds in 300 km / h, with regard to cruising, it runs at a speed of 265 km / h. Two engine capacity of 2,2 thousand forces, they provide a weight lifting machine in 10,9 tons.

  • Ka-31 can reach a maximum speed of 250 km / h. The achievement of this speed is provided by two engines with a capacity of 2,2 thousands of horsepower and weight of the machine during takeoff in 12 tons.

  • Mi-26 makes cruising at a speed of 250 km / h and a top speed of flight reaches in 295 km / h. The power plant consists of two motors of 11,4 thousand horsepower, and the machine can take off from a mass of 56 tons.

  • The Mi-35M is equipped with a power plant consisting of two engines that deliver a total power of thousands of horsepower to the 4,4. Flying is possible with a maximum mass in 10,9 tons. Cruising flight speed is 240 km / h and maximum 300 km / h.

  • Ka-27 can fly with a maximum mass of 11 tons. In this case, the maximum speed of the device reaches the mark in 285 km / h. Flying machines provide engines with power in the 2,2 thousands of horsepower each.

The fastest helicopter in the world

  • Helicopter NH90, which was created jointly by the designers of Germany and France in the Eurocopter corporation, is widely used in many countries. It has excellent flight performance: the rate of climb of the device is equal to 11 m / s, in addition, it can reach speeds in 291 km / h.

  • AW139M is a new generation machine. The power plant of the helicopter is composed of two qualitatively new gas-turbine type engines, due to this, the maximum speed in 310 km / h is achieved.

  • AW101 Merlin helicopter created by the joint efforts of the Italians and the British, it is designed to carry passengers, the number of which on board can reach 30 people. The maximum speed of the device is 309 km / h.

  • CHF-47, manufactured in the United States can develop a speed of 282 km / h. It's a military and a massive machine, but the air behaves quite quickly.

  • AW109 is a multipurpose helicopter that performs cruising at speeds in 285 km / h. As for the maximum speed, it is equal to 311 km / h.

  • The American-made AH-64D helicopter is a multi-purpose vehicle that can accelerate to the maximum speed of 365 km / h. As for the cruising speed of the car, it is also high and is approaching the 270 km / h mark.

  • The fastest helicopter in the world is considered to be the unit Sikorsky X2. This car set a world speed record for helicopters in 2010 year, which is equal to 415 km / h.

Due to technology development engineers are working hard to develop new high-speed helicopter of the new generation that will be able to produce a high-speed transportation of passengers and cargo over long distances.

The fastest plane

Avia.pro

At the expense of passenger aircraft kucho is represented - where Boeing 707, 727, 737, 757, 767, 787; Airbua A300, A340, A350, A80; Douglas and McDonnel Douglas DC-8, DC-9 and MD-80 / 90, DC-10 and MD-11; Lockheed L-1011, Focker 27 / 50 and 28 / 100 / 70, Bombardier, Embraer, HS Trident, BAC 1-11, BAe 146, Yak-42 etc.

Making amendments-KONKOD WAS 2-SAT -POSE TU-144-ANEPERVYM -History should be taught

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